Bataringaya, Pascal. “Churches as Agents for Justice and against Division: Justice and Reconciliation as a Fundamental Mission of the Churches in Rwanda after the Genocide: Resisting Exclusion: Global Theological Responses to Populism.” In Resisting Exclusion: Global Theological Responses to Populism, 77–87. Leipzig, 2019.
Bataringaya, Pascal. Versöhnung nach dem Genozid. Impulse der Friedensethik Dietrich Bonhoeffers für Kirche und Gesellschaft in Ruanda. Serie: Schriften der Hans Ehrenberg-Gesellschaft, Band 18. Kamen (Germany: Helmut Spenner, 1012.
Bowen, Roger W. “”Genocide in Rwanda 1994 – An Anglican Perspective.” In Genocide in Rwanda. Complicity of the Churches?, edited by Carol Rittner, John K. Roth, and Wendy Whitworth, 37–48. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House, 2004.
Butare-Kiyovu, James. “Missions and Genocide in Rwanda.” In Missions in Contexts of Violence, edited by Keith Eugene Eitel. Evangelical Missiological Society Series 15. Pasadena, Calif: William Carey Library, 2007.
Butselaar, Jan van. “Religion, Conflict and Reconciliation in Rwanda: Religion, Conflict and Reconciliation: Multifaith Ideals and Realities.” In Religion, Conflict and Reconciliation: Multifaith Ideals and Realities, 327–39. Amsterdam, 2002.
Butselaar, Jan van. “Rwanda: Lay Initiatives for Peace.” In Butselaar, Jan van. Church and Peace in Africa. The Role of the Churches in the Peace Process, 29–39. Assen (The Netherlands: Van Gorcum, 2001.
Dietrich, Donald J. “The Holocaust, Genocide, and the Catholic Church: Confronting Genocide: Judaism, Christianity, Islam.” In Confronting Genocide: Judaism, Christianity, Islam, 255–65. Lanham, Md, 2009.
AbstractThis volume deals with the contexts of violence. In an age of increasing concern for this type of missionary work, the missions community needs to hear from those that have reflected on the multifaceted elements involved in understanding the phenomenon of martyrdom-persecution violence as it relates to telling the age-old Gospel story. The place to begin is with Biblical and theological analysis followed by the grounding provided by constructing consequent lifestyles, strategies and practices in physically risky settings. Finally, insights from the live settings of violence are warranted.
Erny, Pierre Rwanda. Clés pour comprendre le calvaire d’un peuple. Paris: L’Harmattan, 1994.
Friese, Sebastian. “Politik der gesellschaftlichen Versöhnung: eine theologisch-ethische Untersuchung am Beispiel der Gacaca-Gerichte in Ruanda“. Serie: Theologie und Frieden: Institut für Theologie und Frieden.” Hamburg 39 (2010).
Godfrey, Nick. “Anglcan Revivalists and the Rwandan Genocide: Survivors’ Narratives of Divine Intervention.” In The East African Revival. History and Legacies, edited by Kevin Ward and Emma Wild-Wood. Kampala: Fountain Publishers, 2010.
Haynes, Stephen R. “Death Was Everywhere, Even in Front of the Church’: Christian Faith and the Rwandan Genocide: Confronting Genocide: Judaism, Christianity, Islam.” In Confronting Genocide: Judaism, Christianity, Islam, 183–94. Lanham, Md, 2009.
Kaggwa, Robert. “Is Reconciliation the New Model for Mission?: Reflections on the Rwandan Genocide and Conflicts in the Great Lakes Region of Africa.” Studies in World Christianity 9, no. 2 (2003): 244–64.
Kaggwa, Robert. “Versöhnung als ein hilfreiches soteriologisches Modell: Überlegungen zur Konflikt-bewältigung 10 Jahre nach dem ruandischen Genozid.” Ökumenische Rundschau 54, no. 4 (October 2005): 478–95.
Katongole, Emmanuel, and Jonathan Wilson-Hartgrove. “Postures of Social Engagement: Reflections on Christianity After Rwanda’s Genocide.” The Review of Faith & International Affairs 8, no. 1 (2010): 71–75.
Kezia, Kangwera. “The Christian Church and Socio Therapy Working Together to Build up a Person.” In Here We Are. Community-Based Socio Therapy in Byumba, edited by Annemiek Richters, Brakel, Susan, and Cora Dekker, 75–76. Rwanda. Heemstede: several organisations and individuals, 2008.
Krol, L.R. “Een tijd om te doden en een tijd om te helen. Verslag van de ontmoeting van Rwandese presbyterianen van 22-26 september 1996 te Windhoek in Namibië.” In Leusden: Zending en Werelddiaconaat van de Gereformeerde kerken in Nederland 1996. ZWD 96/1427, n.d.
Linden, Ian. “The Church and Genocide: Lessons from the Rwandan Tragedy: Reconciliation of Peoples: Challenge to the Churches.” In The Reconciliation of Peoples: Challenge to the Churches, 43–55. Geneva, 1997.
Longman, Timothy Paul. “Christian Churches and Genocide in Rwanda: In God’s Name: Genocide and Religion in the Twentieth Century.” In In God’s Name: Genocide and Religion in the Twentieth Century, 139–60. New York, 2001.
Mukansengimana, Rose Nyirimana, and Jonathan A Draper. “The Role of Women in Creating Safe Space for ‘Strangers’: Reading of Joshua 2:1-21 and John 18:15-17 from the Context of Rwandan Conflict.” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa 152 (July 2015): 96–113.
Munyaneza, Malachie. “Genocide in the Name of ‘Salvation’: The Combined Contribution of Biblical Translation/Interpretation and Indigenous Myth to the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.” In Sanctified Aggression. Legacies of Biblical and Post-Biblical Vocabularies of Violence, edited by Jonneke Bekkenkamp and Yvonne Sherwood, 60–75. London/New York: T&T Clark International, 2003.
Musoni, Aimable. “La vita consacrata in Africa profezia della riconciliazione, della giustizia e della pace: Spunti di riflessione a partire dalla II Assemblea Speciale per l’Africa del Sinodo dei Vescovi (4-25 ottobre 2009).” Salesianum 73, no. 1 (January 2011): 149–62.
Ndikumana, Viateur. Mémoire collective et construction d’une identité par un ennemi commun. Etude exégétique de la loi sur la mémoire des actes d’Amaleq selon Deutéronome 25, 17-19 et essai d’actualisation. Saarbrücken: Südwestdeutscher Verlag für Hochschulschriften, 2012.
Niyonsaba, André. “Pastoral Reflection on the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda and the Process of Reconciliation (Doctoral Thesis San Francisco Theological Seminary, Photocopied Document.” San Anselmo, 1999, 255.
Ntihinyuzwa, Thaddée. ’Une interprétation du réveil évangélique est-africain. Une application missiologique de l’anthropologie.’’ In : Servais, Olivier, and Spijker, van ’t , Gérard (Dir.), Anthropologie et missiologie. XIXre-XXe siècles. Entre connivence et rivalité. Paris: Karthala, 2004.
AbstractIn 1994, genocide put Rwanda on the map for most of the world. It also exposed one of the most shameful scandals of the Rwandan churches-the complicity of the Christian churches in the genocide. Rwanda is the most Christian country in Africa. More than 90% of its people are baptized Christians, with the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches having the greatest number of adherents. According to Archbishop Desmond Tutu: "The story of Rwanda shows both sides of our humanity. The churches were sometimes quite superb in what they did in the face of intimidation and at great cost to themselves. But there were other times when [they] failed dismally and seemed to be implicated in ways that have left many disillusioned, disgruntled and angry." Genocide In Rwanda provides a variety of perspectives through which to assess the complex questions and issues surrounding the topic, and, even raise some new questions that could provide some new insight into this historical event. They are questions we must ask - otherwise, how can the Church begin to make moral restitution, change structures and behaviors, and once again reveal the human face of God in our fragile world?
Rittner, Carol. “Rape, Religion, and Genocide: An Unholy Silence: Confronting Genocide: Judaism, Christianity, Islam.” In Confronting Genocide: Judaism, Christianity, Islam, 291–305. Lanham, Md, 2009.
Rukangira, Ernest. Actes du Colloque de Machakos. Colloque de la Société civile sur la Paix, la Reconstruction morale et la Cohabitation sociale dans les Pays des Grands Lacs d’Afrique. Brussels: Solidarité pour l’Afrique, 2001.
Schaardenburgh, Jan van. “Gusenga (Prayer/Meditation) and Sociotherapy in Byumba, Rwanda.” In Here We Are. Community-Based Sociotherapy in Byumba, Rwanda, edited by Annemiek Richters, Susan Brakel, and Cora Dekker, 103–108. Heemstede: several organisations and individuals, 2008.
Schliesser, Christine. “Die Pflicht zur Erinnerung als Pflicht zur Gerechtigkeit (Paul Ricœur): Erinnerung und Versöhnung im Blick auf das post-genozidale Ruanda.” Zeitschrift für Evangelische Ethik 60, no. 2 (April 2016): 117–30.
Schliesser, Christine. “From ‘a Theology of Genocide’ to a ‘Theology of Reconciliation’?: On the Role of Christian Churches in the Nexus of Religion and Genocide in Rwanda.” Religions 9, no. 2 (February 2018): 1–14.
Schliesser, Christine. “Whose Justice? Which Democracy? Justice, Reconciliation and Democracy in Post-Genocide Rwanda: Challenges to Public Theology.” International Journal of Public Theology 12, no. 1 (2018): 24–37.
AbstractThis study analyses the role of religion in the Rwandan genocide, providing new explanations to the complex dynamics of devaluation and victimisation processes in genocidal violence. The thesis explains how religion was used in different contexts prior to, during, and after the 1994 genocide. The following questions guide this study: What kinds of religious concepts and arguments were used in the context of the Rwandan genocide, and how? Why were they used and what did these concepts and arguments mean? Finally, did the meanings of the religious arguments change over time and between different contexts, and if so why?
Texts from three sources were analysed: the Hutu extremist propaganda in Kangura magazine and in RTLM broadcasts, and testimonies from the ICTR trials. The analysis was guided by Roger Dale Petersen’s theory on Fear, Hatred, and Resentment, as well as theories on devaluation, social identity, self-victimisation, and competitive victimhood. This thesis utilises the computer software MAXQDA to search for concepts and arguments, which are analysed through the contextual approach developed by Quentin Skinner. This thesis demonstrates that the Hutu propagandists used religious mythology to argue that the Tutsis were not of Rwandan origin and therefore had no rights in Rwanda. The devaluation of the Tutsi was not only or even primarily done through downgrading animalistic epithets, but through the elevation of Tutsis with emphasis on the historical, and allegedly divine, superiority of the Tutsi. This devaluation allowed the Hutu extremists to claim victimhood, a necessary conviction to argue that violence committed by the Hutus were acts of self-defence. In the deeply Christian context of Rwanda, the extremist Hutu propagandists constructed a Hutu God, while claiming that the Tutsis were non-Christian, irreligious, or atheists, in order to create different religious identities for the two groups.
This study also assesses the judicial aftermath, and argues that religious concepts were used in similar ways in ICTR testimonies to claim innocence, credibility, and victimhood. This thesis thus sheds new light on the importance of religious belief systems in genocidal violence, highlighting the crucial role of religion prior to, during, and after the genocide in Rwanda.
Simpson, Chris. “A Bishop Tried over Genocide’.” The Tablet, June 24, 2000.
Spijker, Gerard van ’t. “Who Will Write the History of Christianity in Rwanda?: Mission Revisited: Between Mission History and Intercultural Theology.” In Mission Revisited: Between Mission History and Intercultural Theology, 93–104. Berlin, 2010.
Spijker, Gerard., van ‘t. “Stereotypen in de Rwandese geschiedschrijving. Een pleidooi voor ontideologisering”.” In Getuigen ondanks zichzelf. Feestbundel voor Jan Mathijs Schoffeleers bij zijn zeventigste verjaardag, edited by Michael Elias, Michael, and Rita Reis, 253–274. Maastricht: Shaker Publishing, 1998.
Spijker, van ‘t. Gerard. “’Credal Hymns as Summa Theologiae: New Credal Hymns in Rwanda after the 1994 War and Genocide.’.” Exchange, Journal of Missiological and Ecumenical Research 30, no. 3 (2001): 256–275.
AbstractSites of violence often provoke conflicts over memorialization. These conflicts provide insight into the construction and use of memory as a means of achieving public recognition of past wrongs. In this groundbreaking collection, scholars of religious studies, sociology, history, and political science, as well as African, Caribbean, Jewish, and Native American studies, examine the religious memorialization of violent acts that are linked to particular sites. Supported by the essays gathered here, the editors argue that memory is essential to religion and, conversely, that religion is inherent in memory. Other books have considered memory and violence, or religion and place—this collection is the first to discuss the intersection of all four.Contributors are David Chidester, James H. Foard, Roger Friedland, Richard D. Hecht, Juan A. Herrero Brasas, Janet Liebman Jacobs, Flora A. Keshgegian, J. Shawn Landres, Edward T. Linenthal, Timothy Longman, Tania Oldenhage, Michelene E. Pesantubbee, Terry Rey, William Robert, Théoneste Rutagengwa, Oren Baruch Stier, Jonathan Webber, and James E. Young.
Sundqvist, Josephine. “Reconciliation as a Societal Process: A Case Study on the Role of the Pentecostal Movement (ADEPR) as an Actor in the Reconciliation Process in Post-Genocide Rwanda.” Svensk Missionstidskrift 99, no. 2 (2011): 157–95.
Waller, James E. “Deliver Us from Evil: Genocide and the Christian World: Christianity and Human Rights: Christians and the Struggle for Global Justice.” In Christianity and Human Rights: Christians and the Struggle for Global Justice, 3–19. Lanham, Md, 2009.
AbstractFrom the 1930s the East African Revival influenced Christian expression in East Central Africa and around the globe. This book analyses influences upon the movement and changes wrought by it in Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania and Congo, highlighting its impact on spirituality, political discourse and culture. A variety of scholarly approaches to a complex and changing phenomenon are juxtaposed with the narration of personal stories of testimony, vital to spirituality and expression of the revival, which give a sense of the dynamism of the movement. Those yet unacquainted with the revival will find a helpful introduction to its history. Those more familiar with the movement will discover new perspectives on its influence.
Zimmermann, Jörg. “Confession de Detmold. Signe d’espoir pour le Rwanda / Bekenntnis von Detmold.” In Hoffnungszeichen für Ruanda . Edited by the Landeskirchenamt der Lippischen Landeskirche in Detmold (s.a, n.d.
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