Ackermann, D. M. “Tamar’s Cry : Re-Reading an Ancient Text in the Midst of a Contemporary Pandemic.” Dutch Reformed Theological Journal = Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif 45, no. Supplement 1 (January 1, 2004): 300–316.
AbstractIn a first section, the story of Tamar is read from a woman's perspective, in a meditative, literary and canonical manner. In a second section, and against the backdrop of seeing HIV and AIDS in South Africa as "a gendered pandemic, " theological reflections are suggested that could contribute in the search for resistance and hope in the face of this bleak reality.
Ackermann, Denise. “Engaging Stigma : An Embodied Theological Response to HIV and AIDS : The Challenge of HIV / AIDS to Christian Theology.” Scriptura : Journal for Contextual Hermeneutics in Southern Africa 89, no. 1 (January 1, 2005): 385–95.
AbstractThis paper explores the nature of stigma in relation to HIV / Aidsby way of fifteen interrelated observations. It serves as an example of "embodied theology". It also offers reflections on what could constitute an appropriate response to stigma on the part of communities of faith in order to clarify and strengthen their roles in combating the Aids pandemic. <BR>"Thembi" grew thin, lost her appetite and then became too weak to get out of bed. "I asked my mother to come from the Transkei to nurse me because my boyfriend had gone back to Maputo. I cannot tell my mother that I have the 'new sickness'. She thought I had been 'toored' (bewitched) and sent for the sangoma (healer) to rub me with herbs to chase the demons out. Nothing helps. Now I am afraid that Sisi is also sick. What will happen to her? I can't tell my church. They will judge me." ("Thembi" died two weeks later in a backroom of one of Johannesburg's suburbs at the age of 29. Her boyfriend arrived in time to bury her. Her daughter Sisi now lives with her grandmother and she is showing signs of being infected with HIV).2 <BR>"Lunga was so excited that morning. He was going to pre-school, face shining, clutching his sandwiches. I had told the school that he was HIV-positive. They accepted him. Things went well and Lunga thrived. Then someone broke confidentiality and told a parent that he was HIV positive. News spreads quickly. I noticed hostility when I took him to school, and then he came home crying. Parents in his class had forbidden their children to play with him. We had to remove him. It has been very hard. We know what stigma feels like and Lunga is lonely." (Louisa, foster mother of Lunga, aged 4). <BR>"My family is very conservative. They are good people; they read their Bibles, they go to church, they pay their taxes but they never talk about sex. They simply don't understand about life today. I can't tell them the truth. They won't understand, they won't know what to do with me. I think they will judge me and I can't bear any more judgment. I am not a bad person. I just made a mistake, I was stupid and I am paying for it. The worst is not the virus but the judgment." (Annatjie, a student aged 24, who recently discovered her status.)
Adegoke, Alfred A. “HIV/AIDS: A Challenge to Sustainable Holistic Evangelism.” ETSI Journal: Journal of the Faculty of ECWA Theological Seminary, Igbaja 7 (2012): 13–17.
Adogame, Afe. “’A Walk for Africa’ : Combating the Demon of HIV / AIDS in an African Pentecostal Church - the Case of the Redeemed Christian Church of God : The Challenge of HIV / AIDS to Christian Theology.” Scriptura: International Journal of Bible, Religion and Theology in Southern Africa 89, no. 1 (January 1, 2005): 396–405.
AbstractThe HIV / Aids pandemic is one crisis that has catapulted the African continent into global limelight, particularly in the last decade. In spite of the common rhetoric whipped by the international community, prevention and impact mitigation responses have been largely hypocritical, half-hearted and grossly inadequate. The scourge seems to have defied any discernible medical, therapeutic and curative measures, thus leaving it to gradually erode the fabric of these societies. Religious groups have been largely affected, especially as youth, the highest HIV / Aids riskgroup, swell their membership. This shapes the responses of religious groups and poses a crucial challenge to their beliefs, ritual practices and worldviews. Using the example of the Redeemed Christian Church of God in Nigeria and Diaspora, this article demonstrates the various mechanisms employed to combat the epidemic. The RCCG conceptualization of disease and healing is central in understanding these responses and measures in combating HIV / Aids.
Adoyo, Priscilla. “Sexual Issues, HIV/AIDS, and the Role of the Church.” Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 31, no. 1 (2012): 25–31.
Amanze, James N. “The Voicelessness of Theology and Religious Studies in Contemporary Africa : Who Is to Blame and What Has to Be Done? Setting a New Agenda.” Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 40, no. 3 (November 1, 2012): 189–204.
AbstractThis paper examines the voicelessness of theology and religious studies in post-independence Africa. It investigates the possible factors that have led to this phenomenon and explores ways and means whereby theology and religious studies can once again regain their rightful position not only in the academia, but also in society as a whole. It argues that unless theologians and religious educators make a radical U-turn to transform theology and religious studies into something meaningful and attractive, these two subjects will continue to be relegated to a second-class category of academic disciplines with disastrous consequences for theological and religious educators, as well as theological institutions.
Asonibare, Stephen Olatunji. “Viewing HIV/AIDS from God’s Perspective: Hints for African Christians.” ETSI Journal: Journal of the Faculty of ECWA Theological Seminary, Igbaja 7 (2012): 56–68.
AbstractHealing was an important part of the mission of Jesus and the apostles. This ministry continued throughout the history of the Church, taking many forms. Plagues, pandemics and incurable diseases have always been a challenge to it. This challenge has been of a contextual theological model which can inform the healing ministry within Southern Africa. The narrative is constructed in terms of seven challenges which must be met to ensure this goal is reached. Three of the challenges respond to issues emerging from a miraculous cures and those who believe primarily in medical procedures. The other four challenges respond to issues emerging from a theological analysis of the context. An assessment is made of the theological merits of diverse healing procedures.
Bongmba, Elias Kifon, and James R Cochrane. “Theology, HIV/AIDS and Public Policy in Africa.” Religion & Theology 14, no. 1–2 (2007): 1–5.
AbstractThe HI virus speaks to people across national boundaries and evokes different reactions. In this article an analysis is made of the place awarded to the notion of "human dignity" in the religion-HIV / AIDS discourse and differences in perspective on "human dignity" as possible grounding principle for this discourse in both African and Western contexts. In Africa this is related to the notion of the imago Dei and in the West to the notion of the imago hominis. Because of the danger of "human dignity", given its foundational position in international charters and jurisdiction, becoming an empty concept, it is contended that the concept of "honour", which actually encompasses that of "dignity" and its necessary counterpart, self-respect, might offer a common basis for a religious discourse uniting Africa and the West in finding a common language that will help people to not only escape the stigma, but also to act upon the need for the eradication of this pandemic. In this discourse God is seen as a friend who has compassion, shows respect for human beings, is trustworthy and non-judgemental and is One who cares unconditionally.
Breda, Adrian D. Van. “Stigma as ‘othering’ among Christian Theology Students in South Africa : Original Article.” SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 9, no. 4 (November 1, 2012): 181–91.
AbstractHIV is a health and developmental crisis that has profoundly challenged the Christian church in sub-Saharan Africa. Responding to stigma and prejudice against HIV and people living with HIV and AIDS has been a major concern of theologians and Christian leaders. However, Christians themselves and the church as a community are equally prone to stigma and prejudice. The author contends that this stigma is grounded in the dynamic of 'othering', which, among Christians, takes on religious or theological overtones. Drawing on qualitative data from theology students in South Africa, the paper assembles a model of AIDS stigma as othering. The central story or axis of the model is the dynamic of othering, comprising three themes, viz. lack of empathic contact, disconnection, and distancing. There are three main dynamics that appear to contribute to or feed into othering, viz. emotions related to sexuality and HIV, theology of health and judgement, and contextualised knowledge of HIV. Finally, the model presents two primary results of othering, viz. disengagement from HIV through passivity and hopelessness, and prejudice against those living with HIV. The paper endeavours to reveal the possible biblical roots of AIDS stigma. Through this, the deep violence embedded in such stigma is exposed and contrasted with a theology of inclusiveness and engagement. Le Virus d'Immunodéficience Humain (VIH) est un problème de santé et de développement qui a profondément remis en question l'église chrétienne en Afrique sub-saharienne. Une préoccupation majeure des théologiens et des leaders religieux était d'apporter une réponse á la stigmatisation et aux préjugés á l'égard du VIH/SIDA et des personnes vivant avec le VIH. Cependant, les chrétiens eux-mêmes et l'église, en tant que communauté, sont également enclins á la stigmatisation et aux préjugés. L'auteur soutient que cette stigmatisation est ancrée dans la dynamique de differentiation or « othering », qui, parmi les chrétiens, prend des références religieuses ou théologiques. S'appuyant sur des données qualitatives provenant des étudiants en théologie en Afrique du Sud, le papier assemble un modèle de stigmatisation liée au SIDA comme differentiation or « othering ». Le principal axe du modèle est la dynamique de differentiation or « othering », comprenant trois thèmes, á savoir: l'absence de contact empathique, la déconnexion et de distanciation ou éloignement. Il y a trois principales dynamiques qui semblent contribuer á nourrir de differentiation or « othering », á savoir : les émotions liées á la sexualité et au VIH, la théologie de la santé et du jugement, et la connaissance contextualisée du VIH. Enfin, le modèle présente deux résultats primaires de differentiation or « othering », á savoir: désengagement vis-á-vis du VIH/SIDA par la passivité, le désespoir et les préjugés envers les personnes vivant avec le VIH. Le papier s'efforce de révéler les racines bibliques de possible stigmatisation liée au SIDA. Grâce á cela, la violence profonde incorporée dans cette stigmatisation est exposée et contrastée avec une théologie de l'inclusivité et de l'engagement.
Brown, J., and H. J. Hendriks. “Understanding HIV / AIDS through the Dark Lens of Poverty.” Dutch Reformed Theological Journal = Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif 45, no. Supplement 1 (January 1, 2004): 403–15.
AbstractThe article highlights a process followed to bridge the gap of alienation between the church and the AIDS community in a very poor urban area of Lilongwe, Malawi. The research illuminated the fact that although it can be done, in so doing, discoveries were made regarding other essential, but unanticipated factors. Disillusionment came when the pious idea of church volunteers reaching out to assist their neighbours in need, revealed the true source of their motives, compounded by the reality and impact of abject poverty.
Browning, Melissa D. “HIV/AIDS Prevention and Sexed Bodies: Rethinking Abstinence in Light of the African AIDS Pandemic.” Theology & Sexuality 15, no. 1 (January 2009): 29–47.
Bruce, Patricia. “Virginity : Some Master Myths. A Study of Biblical and Other Ancient References to Virginity in the Context of HIV / AIDS in South Africa.” Neotestamentica 38, no. 1 (January 1, 2004): 7–27.
AbstractCultures that value virginity often seek to control women closely. This paper examines ancient Jewish, Greek and early Christian attitudes to virginity, setting them in dialogue with contemporary cultural initiatives in KwaZulu-Natal that aim to promote virginity as part of the fight against HIV / AIDS. The Church, which has traditionally advocated virginity, needs to exercise caution in such a situation, where its own traditions and teachings might combine with cultural practices to entrench patriarchy. Discussion of the topic of virginity / sexual abstinence in 1 Corinthians 7, leads to the conclusion that Paul's views (when considered in his own context) were moderate and not aimed at restricting the freedom of women. Subsequent interpretations of Paul's views have, however, been oppressive to women.
Buffel, O. “Pastoral Care to People Living with HIV/Aids: A Pastoral Response That Is Contextual and Liberating.” Practical Theology in South Africa = Praktiese Teologie in Suid-Afrika 21, no. 1 (2006): 1–18.
AbstractThe main argument of this article is that the response of the church in general, and that of pastoral care in particular has not been appropriate, contextual or liberating. This inappropriate response could have contributed to the extreme suffering of people living with HIV / AIDS. The article traces some of the inappropriate responses of the church and pastoral care in particular. For pastoral care to be contextual and liberating, it has to undergo a paradigm shift. Furthermore it is argued that pastoral care needs to reclaim an understanding of the true nature of the church as the body of Christ. Pastoral care needs also to learn from the methodology of liberation theology, that takes the situation and context of the people seriously.
Buys, P. J. “Shame, Guilt, HIV and AIDS in Rural Communities : Religion and Health.” Practical Theology in South Africa = Praktiese Teologie in Suid-Afrika 23, no. 1 (January 1, 2008): 142–62.
AbstractOne of the most challenging issues in dealing with HIV and AIDS is breaking through the stigmas surrounding the disease. This article wants to contribute to the present discussion by investigating the relationship between shame and guilt and HIV and AIDS stigmatisation with specific reference to a rural community in South Africa. This will be done by looking at key features of the African worldview and culture and how it manifests in community attitudes towards people living with AIDS (PLWA). The influence of prevailing beliefs in witchcraft and the way it aggravates the experience of shame and suffering of stigmatisation by people infected and affected by HIV will also be highlighted. Approaches to Christian HIV and AIDS counselling and intervention has to be contextualised to be culturally sensitive and relevant. At the same time a Christian approach to HIV and AIDS intervention may be enriched and become more holistic in unveiling the aspects of the Christian Gospel dealing with God's merciful covering of the shame of his children and Christ having triumphed over and disarmed all spiritual powers and authorities.
Campbell, Catherine, Morten Skovdal, and Andy Gibbs. “Creating Social Spaces to Tackle AIDS-Related Stigma: Reviewing the Role of Church Groups in Sub-Saharan Africa.” AIDS and Behavior 15, no. 6 (2011): 1204–19.
Chitando, Ezra, and Lovemore Togarasei. “‘Woman, Where Are They?’ John 7:53-8:11 and Stigma in the Context of HIV and Aids.” Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 36, no. 1 (April 1, 2008): 4–15.
AbstractThe war against the devastating effects of HIV and Aids continues to be waged on different fronts. From a medical perspective, the discovery of anti-retroviral drugs should be considered a breakthrough, as it has given life to those whom society had considered 'dead'. However, for people living with HIV and Aids, one of their greatest challenges now is stigmatisation. This is particularly so when the person living with HIV and Aids is a Christian. It is in this context that this article discusses the problem of stigmatisation, suggesting a contextually relevant reading and exegesis of John 7:53-8:11. The article argues that the passage provides valuable insights regarding de-stigmatisation in the context of HIV and Aids.
Chitando, Ezra, and Masiiwa Ragies Gunda. “HIV and AIDS, Stigma and Liberation in the Old Testament.” Exchange 36, no. 2 (2007): 184–97.
Chitando, Ezra. “’The Good Wife’ : A Phenomenological Re-Reading of Proverbs 31:10-31 in the Context of HIV / Aids in Zimbabwe.” Scriptura : Journal for Biblical, Theological and Contextual Hermeneutics 86, no. 1 (January 1, 2004): 151–59.
AbstractHIV / AIDS poses a serious existential challenge in Africa. Its effects have been devastating, particularly for the disadvantaged members of society. Women, children, orphans, displaced people, prisoners and others have been negatively affected by the pandemic. Patriarchy has also compounded the vulnerability of women. Women are unable to negotiate safer sexual practices with their partners, especially in the marriage context. Religious and cultural factors have combined to dangerously expose women to HIV infection in Africa. Due to the influence of Christianity in Africa, its sacred writings have been used selectively to justify the marginalisation of women. This study offers a re-reading of Proverbs 31: 10-31. It interrogates the meaning of being "the good wife" in the context of HIV / AIDS in Zimbabwe. The first section analyses the influence of African and biblical patriarchal values and how they expose women to HIV infection. The second section explores new models for appreciating "the good wife" in the era of HIV / AIDS. The third section calls for greater action by women's religious groups in HIV / AIDS awareness, prevention and care. Phenomenological techniques like cultivating empathy and recognising the value of religion guide the study.
Chitando, Ezra. “Theological Institutions and HIV/AIDS: A Zimbabwean Perspective.” Ministerial Formation 102 (January 2004): 13–18.
Conradie, Ernst M. “HIV / AIDS and Human Suffering : Where on Earth Is God? : The Challenge of HIV / AIDS to Christian Theology.” Scriptura : Journal for Contextual Hermeneutics in Southern Africa 89, no. 1 (January 1, 2005): 406–32.
AbstractThis article reflects on the classic theodicy problem in relationship with HIV / Aids. It first offers some general comments about the very need to address the theodicy problem. A next section offers an analysis of various sources of human suffering which is then related to an overview of some of the dominant theodicies in current theological discourse. These discussions are brought together in a final section which investigates various possible answers to the question: Where is God amidst the suffering associated with the HIV / Aids pandemic? The article concludes that one of the many challenges that HIV / Aids pose to Christian communities is to offer a plausible account of each aspect of the Christian faith.
Dames, Gordon E. “The Healing of Life within the HIV and AIDS Pandemic: Towards a Pedagogical Reframing of Paradigms Concerning Dysfunctional Civil, Health and Ecclesial Systems.” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 69, no. 2 (January 15, 2013): 5 pages.
AbstractThe inability of government, communities and churches to deal with complex HIV and AIDS challenges may foster pathological psychosocial and systemic dysfunctionalities. The reframing of pathological and disempowering pastoral therapeutic and health promotion praxes are sought. The objective was to construct a new pastoral and social therapeutic methodology. It should develop in line with health promotion praxes in strengthening both ecclesial and community health praxes. Reframing agents such as pastoral therapeutic and health praxes, as well as ecclesial and community systems, could ultimately engender a transformative process in transforming pathological HIV and AIDS praxes.
De Gruchy, Steve. “Systematic Theological Reflection on HIV and AIDS: Mapping the Terrain.” Religion and HIV and AIDS, 2011, 170–97.
De Klerk, Barend Jacobus, Friedrich W. De Wet, and Rantoa S. Letšosa. “A Homiletic Reflection on the Theological Aesthetics Involved in Picturing God in a Fragmented South African Society.” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 67, no. 2 (2011): a1018.
Demange, Élise. “La convergence des politiques du sida en Ouganda et aux États-Unis : les chrétiens évangéliques comme intermédiaires.” Revue internationale de politique comparee 19, no. 3 (2012): 149–68.
AbstractAu début des années 2000, l’Ouganda et les Etats-Unis ont connu un tournant similaire dans leur politique de prévention du VIH. Les chrétiens évangéliques ont acquis des positions de pouvoir dans l’action publique, la promotion de l’abstinence est valorisée, tandis que l’usage des préservatifs est remis en cause. Cet article interroge la convergence entre les actions publiques de ces deux pays et s’intéresse au rôle d’intermédiaire des chrétiens évangéliques. Il montre comment des acteurs impliqués dans des réseaux transnationaux ont concrètement travaillé à cette convergence. Des chrétiens évangéliques ougandais profondément transnationalisés ont particulièrement travaillé à l’importation d’actions américaines, et à leur appropriation sur le terrain et dans les stratégies d’action publique. La convergence est également étroitement liée à la volonté de certains chrétiens évangéliques de faire évoluer l’équilibre des pouvoirs au sein du champ du VIH/sida et plus largement du champ politique.
Denis, Philippe. “HIV/AIDS and Religion in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Emerging Field of Enquiry.” Archives de Sciences Sociales Des Religions, no. 164 (2013): 43–58.
AbstractChildren who remember their parents in a positive way when they become iII or when they die are in a better position to cope with the hardships of their condition. The concept of memory boxes are used with positive effect to help AIDS orphans cope with the loss of their parents or siblings. The article reports on a pilot study being conducted jointly by the Oral History Project of the School of Theology, University of Natal and Sinosizo Home Based Care.
Desclaux, Alice, and Annabel Desgrées du Loû. “Les femmes africaines face à l’épidémie de sida.” Population & Sociétés 428, no. 10 (2006): 1–4.
AbstractEn Afrique, les femmes sont plus nombreuses que les
hommes à être infectées par le virus du sida. Plus vulnérables biologiquement, elles n’ont pas toujours la capacité de
négocier qui leur permettrait d’insister sur l’utilisation de
préservatifs ou sur la fidélité de leur partenaire.
Prévention et dépistage, encore rares, leur sont cependant
plus accessibles qu’aux hommes grâce aux consultations
prénatales. Mais, si elles apprennent qu’elles sont infectées, leur fragilité socio-économique, la peur de l’opprobre
et la pression de procréation qu’elles subissent, conduisent
trois femmes sur quatre à taire leur séropositivité. Paradoxalement, elles bénéficient pourtant plus souvent que les
hommes des traitements.
Dickinson, David. “Myths or Theories? Alternative Beliefs about HIV and AIDS in South African Working Class Communities.” African Journal of AIDS Research 12, no. 3 (2013): 121–30.
Dube, Musa W., and Tinyiko S. Maluleke. “HIV/AIDS as the New Site of Struggle: Theological, Biblical and Religious Perspectives.” Missionalia: Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 29, no. 2 (August 1, 2001): 119–24.
AbstractThe story of HIV / AIDS in Africa and the Ruth narrative both describe the extraordinary suffering of women in the face of calamity. The plight of women in Africa has never been easy and the advent of HIV / AIDS did nothing to ease the suffering. The risk of becoming infected with HIV is two to four times higher for women than it is for men. Apart from their physical and biological vulnerability, women in Africa are particularly susceptible to HIV infection due to their lower social status, lack of control over their sexual lives, disempowerment and poverty. Exposure to diseases such as Tuberculosis and Malaria further exacerbates the problem.&lt;br&gt; In the Book of Ruth we are also presented with two women who are also experiencing a major crisis. The legal status and social constraints of women such as Naomi and Ruth are analysed against four possible readings of the book. These four perspectives emphasise the responsibility for selfempowerment, the need to work positively towards solutions, the fact that it is sometimes necessary to change the structures of society, and the importance of sometimes cooperating with people in power.
Dyk, Alta C. van. “‘Go in Peace – and Die!’ The Task of the Church in the HIV and/or AIDS Context: Original Research.” Verbum et Ecclesia 38, no. 1 (January 1, 2017): 1–9.
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate how the white Afrikaans-speaking churches in the Reformed tradition are dealing with the health and well-being of its parishioners in the HIV and/or AIDS context. An electronic questionnaire was filled in by 142 clergy from various Afrikaans-speaking churches. Results showed that clergy (90%) believed that HIV and/or AIDS is a much bigger problem outside the Afrikaans-speaking church than inside the church. Although 66% agreed that HIV was also a problem in white Afrikaans-speaking churches, only 30% admitted that it was a problem in their own congregation. Most (70%) believed that HIV and/or AIDS can be ignored in their own congregations. A small number of clergy took it on themselves to provide HIV and/or AIDS counselling (21%), care (19%) and education (18%) with minimum support from church leaders. When it came to HIV and/or AIDS prevention, most clergy were only prepared to preach abstinence and faithfulness, with their main message that ‘our bodies are the temple of God and that it should not be violated’ (70%). Is it not time for clergy to confront reality and to protect their flock by also teaching them prevention skills? Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article is relevant to the fields of pastoral care, psychology and HIV and/or AIDS.
Dyk, Peet J. Van. “The Tale of Two Tragedies: The Book of Job and HIV/AIDS in Africa.” Bulletin for Old Testament Studies in Africa 16 (May 2004): 7–13.
AbstractOne of the most controversial statements in the contemporary Church is surely the assertion that ‘The Church has AIDS’! This statement challenges Christians to recognize that it is impossible to do theology and engage in Christian life and ministry without taking into account the impact of HIV and AIDS on the world. Susan Rakoczy reminds us that theologians, and all Christians who take their belief in Christ seriously, have a responsibility to forge a positive theology of HIV/AIDS, since sadly so much of the Church’s official and popular rhetoric has sent the false message that at best God is silent on HIV and AIDS, and at worst God is either punishing persons with AIDS or has abandoned us in our suffering.
Frederiks, Martha. “Church, Theology and People Living with HIV and Aids in Africa.” Exchange 37, no. 1 (January 1, 2008): 1–3.
Gennrich, Daniela. “Churches and HIV/Aids: Exploring How Local Churches Are Integrating HIV/Aids in the Life and Ministries of the Church.” Commonwealth Youth and Development 3, no. 2 (January 2005): 5–38.
Guignard, Lison. “Résistances catholiques au protocole de Maputo. Mobilisations et controverses autour de la libéralisation de l’avortement en Afrique.” Genre, sexualité & société, no. 18 (December 1, 2017).
AbstractCet article analyse les oppositions catholiques à la ratification du protocole additionnel à la Charte africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples relatif aux droits des femmes (protocole de Maputo). Ce protocole énonce, entre autres, le principe de libre accès, pour les femmes, à une offre médicalisée de l’avortement sous certaines conditions, alors même que cette pratique est partiellement ou totalement interdite dans la plupart des États d’Afrique subsaharienne. Reposant sur une analyse d’articles de presse et de discours, cet article vise à explorer le processus de politisation des questions sexuelles et reproductives par les acteurs religieux à travers les oppositions catholiques à l’article 14. La controverse suscitée dévoile en effet les enjeux de la libéralisation de l’avortement dans le contexte post-colonial africain, où cette question est présentée comme une invasion occidentale et engendre des postures de résistance d’une nature particulière.
Haddad, Beverley G. “Gender Violence and HIV/AIDS: A Deadly Silence in the Church.” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, no. 114 (November 2002): 93–106.
Haddad, Beverley. “‘Taking the Wanting out of the Waiting’: HIV, Transactional Sex, and #Blessed in the Context of Neo-Liberal Christianity.” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, no. 161 (July 1, 2018): 5–17.
AbstractThere are 2000 new HIV infections amongst young women between the ages of 15 and 24 in South Africa each week. Research over the past fifteen years has shown that transactional sex with older men, traditionally known as “sugar daddies”, is a key driver in this vulnerability. Recently, these older men have been termed “blessers” on social media sites with a community of young urban women, #Blessed, seeking lifestyles that embrace the commodified goods of neoliberal capitalism. The article discusses the notion of “transactional sex” and positions young women as both victim and agent in the South African context of unemployment and poverty. Possible linkages between the “blesser” phenomenon and theologies that promote prosperity “as a blessing from God” are explored. The article argues that by naming these relationships #Blessed, young women choose to harness the tools of prosperity theology and link their desire for material wealth and consumer lifestyles with the unmediated power of God who intervenes and “takes the wanting out of waiting”. African women’s theologies must, the article contends, address women’s agency that does not destabilise unequal gender relations by engaging the intersections of economics, gender, and sexuality in the current South African context.
Haddad, Beverley. “‘We Pray but We Cannot Heal’: Theological Challenges Posed by the HIV/AIDS Crisis.” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, no. 125 (July 2006): 80–90.
Haddad, Beverley. “Surviving the HIV and AIDS Epidemic in South Africa: Women Living and Dying, Theologising and Being Theologised.” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, no. 131 (July 2008): 47–57.
Hadebe, Nontando Margaret. “‘Moving in Circles’ – a Sankofa–Kairos Theology of Inclusivity and Accountability Rooted in Trinitarian Theology as a Resource for Restoring the Liberating Legacy of The Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians.” Verbum et Ecclesia 37, no. 2 (2016): 1–6.
AbstractLe SIDA est présent dans nos médias et dans nos conversations depuis une quinzaine d’années environ. Il s’agit d’un fléau dont l’impact sur l’âme de notre génération dépasse peut-être celui de toutes les autres grandes préoccupations de notre temps. Qu’en avons-nous appris ? Quelles leçons en tirer pour nos Églises protestantes évangéliques ?
Harrell, Rich, and Committee. “Theological Perspective on HIV and AIDS: Summary Statements.” Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 31, no. 1 (2012): 85–86.
AbstractHIV / AIDS poses an enormous challenge for the Christian church in Africa. Though many congregations engage in practical social programmes addressing the medical and social problems related to HIV / AIDS often there is no adequate theological concept dealing with HIV / AIDS. This article argues that starting from biblical insights and Christian anthropology in the current situation a contextual theology adressing HIV / AIDS and a respective sexual ethics have to be developped which enables Christians to live responsibly in a time of HIV / AIDS without demonising sexuality. This, in turn, could contribute to the ethical discourse in civil society and thus foster the development of a public theology.
Haug, Kari Storstein. “Overcoming HIV/AIDS-Related Stigmatisation and Affirming Life in the African Context: The Role of Theology.” Svensk Missionstidskrift 97, no. 2 (2009): 211–27.
Hendriks, H. J., J. C. Erasmus, and G. G. Mans. “Congregations as Providers of Social Service and HIV / AIDS Care.” Dutch Reformed Theological Journal = Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif 45, no. Supplement 1 (January 1, 2004): 380–402.
AbstractThe article argues that the missional identity of the church compels it in a context of poverty and HIV / AIDS to partake in social service ministries. It describes and illustrates the methodology of a multi-disciplinary, participatory action, praxis-oriented research project. The church (and other NGOs) took the lead and addressed poverty related issues in collaboration with the government and business sectors. The different faces of poverty were mapped in the Paarl community highlighting the HIV / AIDS situation and describing the preliminary results of the project
Hendriks, H. Jurgens, and Janet Brown. “The Aids Fulcrum: The Church in Africa Seesawing between Alienation, Estrangement, Prejudice and Love.” Practical Theology in South Africa= Praktiese Teologie in Suid-Afrika 19, no. 2 (2004): 19–36.
Hlongwana, Khumbulani, and Sibongile Mkhize. “HIV/AIDS through the Lens of Christianity: Perspectives from a South African Urban Support Group.” SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS 4, no. 1 (2007): 556–63.
Joshua, Stephen M. “Ailing of AIDS and Unaided : A Critical-Historical Review of HIV Testing and ‘Spaces’ of Disclosure for Catholic Clerics and Religious in South Africa during the 1990s: Themes in Post-1994 South Africa / Temas in Post-1994 Suid-Afrika.” Journal for Contemporary History 41, no. 2 (December 2016): 144–60.
AbstractAs was the case with the larger South African society during the 1990s, the Catholic Church was not without error in the manner in which it dealt with HIV and AIDS. Whereas the church was involved in activism for the rights of People Living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) on the outside, it ironically ignored, arguably even muted, voices of PLWHA within its inner ranks, especially the priests, religious, and candidates for spiritual formation and vocation at the seminaries. Sadly, HIV testing is intricately connected to the disclosure of HIV positive status for Catholic clerics and religious on account of the vow to celibacy. An HIV positive test result presents both a health and a moral dilemma for the church. So sensitive was the issue that the Southern Africa Catholic Bishops’ Conference debated on it in the entire 1990s, and abandoned it inconclusively. Meanwhile, HIV positive priests agonised in silence and the religious in convents would only confess their status on death beds due to foreseen hostilities by their peers and superiors. Based on oral interviews and archival materials, such as correspondence letters and minutes, the article is a critical-historical review of how the Catholic Church handled HIV testing and disclosure within its inner ranks during the 1990s. It is argued that, as was the case of condom use in HIV prevention, the Catholic Church struggled throughout the 1990s to accept that priesthood and religious life was not immune to the social challenge of HIV and AIDS and thereby failed to accept and care for HIV positive priests and religious.
Jurgens, H, Hendriks Johannes, Erasmus Gerbrand, and Gerbrand Mans. “Congregations as Providers of Social Service and HIV/Aids Care A Case Study from South Africa,” November 19, 2020, 25.
Kareem, Kayode P. “The Untamed Monster: The 21st Century African Christians in the Face of HIV/AIDS Pandemic and Ecclesiatical Responses.” ETSI Journal: Journal of the Faculty of ECWA Theological Seminary, Igbaja 7 (2012): 103–16.
Katongole, Emmanuel M. “Christian Ethics and AIDS in Africa Today: Exploring the Limits of a Culture of Suspicion and Despair.” Missionalia: Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 29, no. 2 (August 1, 2001): 144–60.
AbstractDiscussion of the AIDS epidemic in the light of Christian ethics seems to have got bogged down in narrow moralistic prescriptions, for example over whether or not it is right to use condoms to prevent AIDS. What is often ignores is that the AIDS epidemic is changing the kind of people we are. It has reinforced both Western stereotypes of Africa, and African suspicion of the West, and of the West's intentions in Africa.
Kaunda, Chammah J. “Neo-Prophetism, Gender and ‘Anointed Condoms’: Towards a Missio Spiritus of Just-Sex in the African Context of HIV and AIDS.” Alternation 23, no. 2 (2016): 64–88.
AbstractThis paper examines the role played by the diagelo in the care of terminally ill patients in Botswana. Diagelo refers to the clinics or hospitals of the AICs. The patients studied are mainly those connected with the AIDS pandemic. The AICs have always been known as healing churches and many researchers have pointed out that healing is the major attracting factor to enrolment, recruitment and growth in AICs.
Kgosikwena, Kagiso B. “Pastoral Care and the Dying Process of People Living with HIV/AIDS Speaking of God in a Crisis.” Missionalia: Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 29, no. 2 (August 1, 2001): 200–219.
AbstractThe emotional turmoil experienced by people living with AIDS is a challenge to pastoral care in Botswana. People diagnosed as HIV positive find that their lives are completely redefined and often face ostracism because of the social stigma attached to HIV/AIDS The works of Elizabeth Kobler-Ross which deal with the process of dying, can be helpful here. Dying people go through stages of denial, anger, isolation, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Their families, and even the whole society, also pass through these stages.
Klaits, Frederick. “Making a Good Death: AIDS and Social Belonging in an Independent Church in Gaborone.” Botswana Notes & Records 30, no. 1 (January 1, 1998): 101–20.
AbstractThis article discusses the material and moral dimensions of the current AIDS crisis as experienced by members of a small independent church in Gaborone, Botswana. A case study, based on participant-observation research, is presented of a young woman church member whose illness and death provoked those involved in her care to reflect upon and debate the nature of her social loyalties. The article explores the multiple social and emotional significances of caretaking, of death, and of the religious and medical languages in which suffering is discussed. It is suggested that there is a need for AIDS prevention programs in Botswana to find ways to build on popular ways of affirming social belonging in the context of suffering.
Klinken, Adriaan S. Van. “‘The Body of Christ Has AIDS’ A Study on the Notion of the Body of Christ in African Theologies Responding to HIV and AIDS.” Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 36, no. 2_3 (August 1, 2008): 319–36.
AbstractIn the responses of African theologians to the challenges raised by HIV and AIDS, they often refer to the metaphor of the body of Christ. This article investigates how this metaphor is used and understood by African theologians and why it has become so prominent in their reflections on the reality of HIV and AIDS. Two dimensions of the metaphor are highlighted: an ecclesiological one, concerning the Church and its mission in the context of HIV and AIDS, and a sacramental one, concerning the significance of the Eucharist/Holy Communion in the HIV and AIDS context. It is argued that the particular attraction of the metaphor is in its notion of solidarity. For this reason "the body of Christ" has become a central biblical metaphor in what can be called an HIV and AIDS liberation theology. Furthermore, it is argued that the use of the metaphor of the body of Christ in African theologies responding to HIV and AIDS has a theological impact that transcends the African context. This raises critical questions for Christian Churches and for theology worldwide.
Klinken, Adriaan S. Van. “The Ongoing Challenge of HIV and AIDS to African Theology: A Review Article.” Exchange 40, no. 1 (2011): 89–107.
Klinken, Adriaan S. Van. “Theology, Gender Ideology and Masculinity Politics: A Discussion on the Transformation of Masculinities as Envisioned by African Theologians and a Local Pentecostal Church.” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, no. 138 (November 2010): 2–18.
Korbéogo, Gabin, and Salfo Lingani. “Des vies reconstruites. Exclusion et réinsertion sociale des femmes vivant avec le VIH à Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).” Sciences sociales et sante 31, no. 3 (2013): 5–28.
AbstractSur la base d’enquêtes qualitatives et ethnographiques conduites entre 2006 et 2008 au sein de l’Association des personnes infectées et affectées par le sida (APIAS) de la ville de Ouagadougou, cet article montre que l’infection à VIH est un événement modificateur de la vie des femmes séropositives en ce sens que la découverte de la maladie remet en cause leur statut socio-économique, matrimonial et politique. Ces ruptures biographiques ont été surmontées grâce aux appuis de l’APIAS, des églises et des structures de prise en charge des personnes séropositives, ce qui a favorisé leur retour à la « vie normale ». La conquête d’un « second souffle de vie » se réalise à travers la recherche de la prise en charge médicale, spirituelle, la reconstruction d’un réseau de relations sociales, d’une relative autonomie financière qui contribuent à la réfection des corps biologiques et de l’identité sociale de ces femmes.
Lévy, Joseph. “L’apocalypse dans les représentations de l’épidémie du VIH/sida : du religieux au médiatique.” Frontières 25, no. 2 (2013): 41–55.
AbstractSince the 1980s, the epidemic of the HIV/AIDS, because of its acuteness, contributed to social representations and interpretations which include the theme of apocalypse. This paper will discuss this notion in three sets of discourses. Religious movements have reintroduced this idea in a fundamentalist way, but other theological schools criticize this use, proposing other interpretations. In philosophical texts, a more profane meaning is attached tot this concept, while retaining an hyperbolic dimension to signify the catastrophic dimensions of the epidemic, a perspective criticized par some intellectuals who produced counter-discourses more in conformity with an immanent vision of this infection. Medias repetitively use this notion to underscore the sensationalist dimension of the HIV/AIDS, in spite of pharmacological innovations which can erase this type of reference.
Landman, Christina. “A Theology for the Older, Female HIV-Infected Body.” Exchange 37, no. 1 (2008): 52–67.
Landman, Christina. “The Church as a HIV-Competent Faith Community : An Assessment of Christian AIDS Bureau for Southern Africa’s Churches, Channels of Hope Training : Original Research.” Verbum et Ecclesia 35, no. 2 (January 1, 2014): 1–6.
AbstractJulian Müller has envisioned the praxis of theology, from a postfoundational point of view, to develop in two movements: engagement in a community that leads to 'real contextual outcomes' and the establishment of new traditions as deconstructed discourses that move beyond single communities. This article assesses the Churches, Channels of Hope (CCoH) training of the Christian AIDS Bureau for Southern Africa (CABSA) in terms of the two criteria laid down by Müller. Firstly, do they successfully train their facilitators to skilfully empower their faith communities to become competent in dealing with people living with HIV? In other words, does the CCoH training lead to 'real contextual outcomes'? Secondly, are the deconstructed social discourses put in place by the CCoH training that focus on the 'new' Christian values of human worthiness and agency able to constitute a contra-culture that will move beyond the boundaries of specific contexts? After the CCoH facilitator's manual and a report on the facilitators' reaction to the training course have been studied, it was found that the CCoH training embodies 'HIV competency' in practices and discourses that can indeed be called 'contextual' as well as 'contra-cultural' although they lack some much-needed skills in reading the Bible from a non-fundamentalist point of view and conducting their impact studies in a more sophisticated and non-reductionist way. Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article wants to make a contribution to HIV discoursing over a wide range of disciplines. The lifestyle changes and spiritual healing of the CCoH training that is assessed here inform the fields of counselling, life skills, law and gender. The proposed contra-culture and alternative discourses at stake touch on the fields of primary, secondary and, indeed, tertiary education.
Lebouché, Bertrand, and Joseph Lévy. “Récits de souffrance et VIH/sida : réflexions sur quelques enjeux anthropologiques et éthiques du témoignage.” Alterstice : revue internationale de la recherche interculturelle / Alterstice: International Journal of Intercultural Research / Alterstice: Revista International de la Investigacion Intercultural 1, no. 2 (2011): 97–107.
AbstractComme le montrent les travaux sur la maladie grave, celle‐ci constitue un événement majeur qui affecte non seulement l’organisme mais aussi la perception de l’identité, et conduit les individus à devenir étrangers ou invisibles, rendant difficile l’expression du témoignage de l’expérience de leur maladie. Ces caractéristiques sont pleinement illustrées chez les personnes vivant avec le VIH/sida, jusqu’à disparaître souvent des espaces de dépistage, de diagnostic et de soins mis à leur disposition. Ces enjeux son repris à partir de l’approche éthique de Johannes‐Baptist Metz et de William T. Cavanaugh qui offrent un cadre de réflexion qui met au centre de leur argumentation les motifs éthiques touchant les espaces de réappropriation des récits de souffrance et leur réinscription dans l’espace social, en particulier dans le contexte interculturel. À partir de ces approches, les espaces de soins font l’objet d’une nouvelle interprétation, montrant comment ils peuvent devenir des lieux de réflexion, d’échanges et de pratiques qui dépassent le simple accès à des traitements biomédicaux, comme les antirétroviraux. Ces innovations, paradoxalement, font rebondir le statut du récit et du témoignage pour les personnes vivant avec le VIH/sida.
Lebouché, Bertrand. “VIH / SIDA : Quelle théologie pour les plus vulnérables ?” Revue d’ethique et de theologie morale 241, no. HS (2006): 67–85.
AbstractAlors que l’Église est un des premiers acteurs de la lutte contre l’épidémie de vih/sida, son discours à ce sujet est souvent refusé. L’auteur montre comment les notions de gradualité du Bien chez Aristote et leur reprise théologique chez Thomas d’Aquin à partir des lois humaines pourraient permettre à l’Église de répondre plus adéquatement aux enjeux de vulnérabilité et à la dimension sociale de cette épidémie.
Leclercq, Vincent. “Pour lutter contre le Sida promouvoir la participation des plus vulnérables.” Laennec 57, no. 1 (2009): 25–35.
AbstractRésuméPlus que jamais, « la pauvreté et l’inégalité décident de qui vit ou meurt du Sida aujourd’hui ». La lutte contre le VIH ne peut se réduire aux progrès scientifiques enregistrés par les pays les plus prospères économiquement. Il faut d’urgence repenser notre solidarité à l’égard des plus fragiles en développant une véritable thique de l’hospitalité, soucieuse de promouvoir la dignité, l’autonomie et la participation des populations les plus exposées.
Leshota, Paul L. “Problematization of the Catholic Church Understanding of Marriage within the Context of HIV & AIDS.” Boleswa Journal of Theology, Religion and Philosophy 1, no. 3 (January 1, 2007): 37–56.
AbstractSabinet African Journals - reliable research that offers more than 500 African journals, including the African Journal Archive. It is the most comprehensive, searchable collection of full-text African electronic journals available on one platform.
Letšosa, Rantoa S., and Barend J. De Klerk. “Liturgical Engagement with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Sahara Africa.” Studia Liturgica 41, no. 2 (2011): 171–85.
Louw, Daniël J., and Elisabet Le Roux. “Reading Films as Human Texts: Yesterday and the Dismantling of Stigmatisation in a Pastoral Hermeneutics within the Context of the HIV Pandemic.” Scriptura : Journal for Biblical, Theological and Contextual Hermeneutics 102 (2009): 538–50.
Mageto, Peter. “The Theory of ‘zero-Grazing’ Sexuality in Africa: Understanding the Limitation of Theological and Ethical Language in the Church’s Response to HIV and AIDS in Africa.” Svensk Missionstidskrift 100, no. 2 (2012): 169–94.
Maluleke, Tinyiko S. “The Challenge of HIV/AIDS for Theological Education in Africa: Towards an HIV/AIDS Sensitive Curriculum.” Missionalia: Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 29, no. 2 (August 1, 2001): 125–43.
AbstractThe HIV/AIDS pandemic constitutes a new kairos for the church in (Southern) Africa. The church should overcome its theological impotence in the face of AIDS and learn from African Theology how to develop a contextually relevant theology to meet this new kairos.
Manala, Matsobane J. “An Afro-Christian Ministry to People Living with HIV / Aids in South Africa.” HTS : Theological Studies 61, no. 3 (September 1, 2005): 897–914.
AbstractThe HIV / Aids pandemic is cause for great frustration to the developing countries in their attempts to improve the quality of life of their citizens. HIV / Aids in South Africa demands a specific approach to the Christian ministry in which the African world-view is acknowledged. In order for the church to play a relevant and meaningful role in combating the HIV / Aids pandemic, it is necessary that the church should be informed of the existential situation of persons living with HIV / Aids. This information is vital for raising awareness and engendering sensitivity among Christians. In the context of such awareness of and sensitivity to human pain and suffering, the community of the faithful should be moved to heed Christ's call to show neighbourly love. The possible role of the church in caring for those who are already infected with HIV is defined.
Mantell, Joanne E., Jacqueline Correale, Jessica Adams-Skinner, and Zena A. Stein. “Conflicts between Conservative Christian Institutions and Secular Groups in Sub-Saharan Africa: Ideological Discourses on Sexualities, Reproduction and HIV/AIDS.” Global Public Health 6, no. sup2 (October 1, 2011): S192–209.
AbstractReligious and secular institutions advocate strategies that represent all points on the continuum to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. Drawing on an extensive literature review of studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, we focus on those secular institutions that support all effective methods of reducing HIV/AIDS transmission and those conservative religious institutions that support a limited set of prevention methods. We conclude by identifying topics for dialogue between these viewpoints that should facilitate cooperation by expanding the generally acceptable HIV/AIDS prevention methods, especially the use of condoms.
Masenya (ngwan’a Mphahlele), Madipoane, V. Ndikhokele N. Mtshiselwa, and N. Mtshiselwa. “Dangling between Death and Hope: An HIV and AIDS Gender-Sensitive Re-Reading of Psalm 6.” Verbum et Ecclesia 37, no. 2 (2016): 1–8.
Masenya, Madipoane J. “Between Unjust Suffering and the ‘Silent’ God: Job and HIV/AIDS Sufferers in South Africa.” Missionalia: Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 29, no. 2 (August 1, 2001): 186–99.
AbstractThe South African context has historically, at least since the missionary era, been conspicuously shaped by the Christian faith, and more importantly for the present article, also by the Christian Bible. This context also shares a world view that is in many respects similar to that found in the Old Testament. When confronted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, a devout reader of the Book of Job in the Hebrew Bible cannot remain unchanged. Informed by this (South) African context, how does one make sense of the 'unjust' suffering of the devout biblical character, Job?
Masenya, Madipoane, and Lehlohonolo Bookholane. “Towards an Ethical Reading of the Hebrew Bible in the Fight against HIV and AIDS.” Old Testament Essays 24, no. 1 (January 1, 2011): 94–117.
AbstractThe high rates of prevalence of the HIV and AIDS pandemic in the African continent in general, and in the Southern African region in particular, has rightfully attracted the attention of scholars across various disciplines, including a few of the Hebrew Bible (HB) scholars in South Africa. Some have responded to the discourse of the relationship between HIV and AIDS and the HB by making claims that the HB is a source of moral values. Some explore whether it may reveal something about the pandemic, while others investigate whether the HB engenders stigma against the affected and infected. The scholars' response (or lack thereof) to this discourse depends largely, in the first place, on the type of questions they pose, their attitude to the biblical narrative in general and secondly, the main text(s) of their investigation in particular. They employ basically two approaches in their hermeneutical and exegetical efforts. Firstly, there is an option for what may be called "alternative readings." Secondly, there are readings aimed at providing deconstructions of specific HB texts. In this article, we propose that the link between the pandemic of HIV and AIDS and the HB could be better resolved by taking a closer look at the literary narrative constructions themselves, identifying as many ideologies as possible in our quest for a more holistic ethical reading of the HB in the context of HIV and AIDS.
Mashau, T D. (Thinandavha Derrick). “Where and When It Hurts Most: The Theology of Hope and Accompaniment in the Context of HIV and Aids in Marriage and Family Life.” Exchange 37, no. 1 (2008): 23–34.
Mbona, Michael. “HIV and AIDS: An Epidemic of ‘Pandemonium’ amid Denial and Stigma by the Roman Catholic, Anglican and United Methodist Churches in Manicaland, Zimbabwe (1985-2002).” Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae 38, no. Supplement (August 2012): 181–204.
AbstractThe arrival of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in Zimbabwe in the early 1980s caused pandemonium in a
young nation that was still basking in the glory of attaining political independence. With more than
75% of the population being Christian, churches were in a strong position to tolerate and support
people infected and affected by the new disease. Initially Christians believed that HIV/AIDS was a
curse from God for the sin of adultery and did not affect the “faithful”. Christians’ denial of the
epidemic was also imbedded in the notion of AIDS as runyoka, a local sexually transmitted condition
believed to attack males who had sexual intercourse with someone else’s wife. Christians’ blamed
witchcraft for causing HIV/AIDS which enhanced the denial of the epidemic as a biomedical reality.
While by the early 1990s church leaders declared that AIDS was not a punishment from God, the
stigmatisation of people infected and affected by the epidemic took root among grassroots Christian
communities. Using oral and archival sources this article argues that between 1985 and 2002 the
reaction by churches to the epidemic was dominated by denial and stigma. Christian communities from
the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican and the United Methodist churches in Manicaland,
Zimbabwe, failed to provide safe havens for people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS.
Mboya, Rose. “A Local Church’s Holistic Response to HIV/AIDS.” Missionalia: Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 38, no. 1 (2010): 121–41.
AbstractThis paper is an attempt to contribute to demonstrating ways in which a local church can respond to HIV/AIDS in a holistic way. The main argument in this paper is that in order for churches to respond holistically, engaging in re-structuring society's viewpoint so that men and women can relate in a healthy manner, as opposed to the manner in which they relate today, is a necessity. Also, that it is crucially important for churches to address all aspects that affect life and to reconsider the meaning of terms such as marriage and love in the context of HIV/AIDS.
Mbuwayesango, Dora R. “Levirate Marriage and HIV and AIDS in Zimabwe: The Story of Judah and Tamar (Genesis 38).” Journal of Constructive Theology 13, no. 2 (2007): 5–15.
AbstractBible reading and compassionate practices play important roles in church related work for people living with HIV and AIDS in Africa. Those who are affected by this disease experience stigma and exclusion; so compassion is both relevant and important. But the Bible has to be read with the intention to reduce the power relation between the Bible reading experts and the non-experts. This is a challenge for the Ujamaa Centre in South Africa.
Mmolai, Sana K. “The Role of Religious Education in the Fight against HIV and AIDS in Botswana by Promoting Caring Attitudes.” Boleswa Occasional Papers in Theology and Religion 2, no. 4 (January 1, 2007): 85–93.
AbstractSince the discovery of HIV and AIDS in the early 1980 's, education has been acclaimed as a global strategy for fighting against the spread of HIV and AIDS. In 1988 the Government of Botswana adopted a national AIDS policy which calls on the Ministry of Education to spearhead the fight against the spread of HIV and AIDS by infusing HIV and AIDS education into the curriculum at all levels of education.
Muoki Joshua, Stephen. “The Dowling Controversy, the ‘Message of Hope’ and the Principle of Oikonomia: A Historical-Critical Reflection on the South Africa Catholic Church’s Stance on the Use of Condoms in HIV Prevention between 2000 and 2005.” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, no. 137 (July 2010): 4–27.
Naude, Piet. “’It Is Your Duty to Be Human’ : A Few Theological Remarks amidst the HIV / AIDS-Crisis : The Challenge of HIV / AIDS to Christian Theology.” Scriptura : Journal for Contextual Hermeneutics in Southern Africa 89, no. 1 (January 1, 2005): 433–40.
AbstractThis paper first explains why the HIV / Aids pandemic requires a fundamental reorientation of our theological reflection, followed by three reasons why such reflection is inhibited in the present churches' context. It then attempts to set out how God the creator; Jesus, the self-donating priest; and the Holy Spirit create the basis for the church as healing and embracing community.
Ncube, Vincent. “HIV and AIDS in Rural Tonga Culture.” HTS : Theological Studies 72, no. 1 (January 1, 2016): 1–7.
AbstractThirty-five years has gone by since the first diagnosis of HIV in Zimbabwe. Causes and reasons for the disease and its spread vary from place to place and from society to society. In some cases, the usage of needles and other medical apparatus is blamed for causing the disease. In some other instances, some religious beliefs are held responsible for the pandemic. However, it is a different case with the Tonga females of the Pashu community in Zimbabwe. The belief is that HIV among the Tonga females is perpetuated by some cultural practices and beliefs. The practices and beliefs pose a danger to the lives of the Tonga females from the age of infancy to that of elderly women. The culture of silence, loyalty and submissiveness has even aggravated the suffering of these people. The culture has denied them an opportunity to seek medical aid and pastoral therapy. Hope for life and a future for these people are inevitably lost. The study is, therefore, an effort to validate the assumed claim that the Tonga females are exposed to HIV by some of the cultural practices. It is also the purpose of this study to create a pastoral care methodology which will be used to view the problem from a pastoral perspective. A review of the alleged cultural practices is also the business of this study.
Ndungane, Njongonkulu. “The Challenge of HIV / AIDS to Christian Theology.” Scriptura : Journal for Contextual Hermeneutics in Southern Africa 89, no. 1 (January 1, 2005): 377–84.
AbstractIn this article Archbishop Ndungane reflects on various aspects related to the challenge that HIV / Aids poses to the church in South Africa and to Christian theology. He draws on biblical motifs to address a wide range of issues such as stigma, gender, youth, children, suffering, healing death, funerals and the availability of resources to address the pandemic.
Ngewa, Samuel. “Who Is the Neighbor?: An Application of Luke 10:30-37 to the HIV and AIDS Crisis.” Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 31, no. 1 (2012): 5–9.
Ngwenya, B. Ntombi. “We Are All Believers Crisis in Living Conditions and the Intervention of Burial Societies in Botswana.” Missionalia: Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 29, no. 2 (August 1, 2001): 282–303.
AbstractBurial societies in Botswana provide financial relief to bereaved households. Over the last three decades of economic development in Botswana people have been exposed to new sources of vulnerability, including the HIV/AIDS pandemic. A burial society is a relatively autonomous, historically distinct local mutual aid institution which may be occupational or gender based, whose goal is to provide social relief and support to a member or members' family/kin experiencing distress due to death.
Njoroge, Nyambura. “Come Now, Let Us Reason Together.” Missionalia: Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 29, no. 2 (August 1, 2001): 232–57.
AbstractThe HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa and other major socio-economic problems call for critical reflection on how communities can be equipped and encouraged to confront these life and community destroying calamities.
Nkansah-Obrempong, James. “Theology and HIV and AIDS.” Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 31, no. 1 (2012): 33–42.
Nkurunziza, Corneille. “Locally Composed Songs: An Expression of Genuine Contextual Theology? The Case of Songs on HIV and AIDS in Burundian Pentecostal Churches.” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, no. 142 (March 2012): 58–79.
AbstractThis essay offers a critical introduction to the Lutheran / Moravian programme to combat the HIV / AIDS pandemic, drafted in March 2000, which has not been exposed to public debate as yet. It includes deep going theological reflection as well as a concrete plan of action : The law of God formulates the preconditions for a healthy human existence as revealed by observation and reason, rather than an authoritarian code of conduct. The gospel of Christ, understood as God's suffering, transforming acceptance of the unacceptable makes us ready to bear the cross with those who are infected and affected. The prophetic ministry has to focus on exposing and overcoming the hedonistic assumption of the modern commercial culture. The plan of action focuses on the establishment of AIDS Committees in each parish, which spread information, identify cases, and establish a local AIDS Support Group for each patient, based on the extended family and a caring community. Unwieldy and expensive bureaucracies are discouraged.
Okaalet, Peter. “The Church and AIDS in Africa: Towards a Spiritual Answer.” Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 31, no. 1 (2012): 49–59.
Olivier, Jill. “Where Does the Christian Stand?: Considering a Public Discourse of Hope in the Context of HIV/AIDS in South Africa.” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, no. 126 (November 2006): 81–99.
Parsitau, Damaris Seleina. “‘Keep Holy Distance and Abstain till He Comes’: Interrogating a Pentecostal Church’s Engagements with HIV/AIDS and the Youth in Kenya.” Africa Today 56, no. 1 (2009): 44–64.
AbstractThe Deliverance Church in Kenya has attempted to provide moral solutions to the HIV/AIDS pandemic by promoting behavioral change among the youth: it teaches abstinence before marriage and fidelity within marriage and requires mandatory HIV testing for those intending to get married. Such teachings confine HIV/AIDS to issues of sex, obscure the complexity of sexuality, and ignore social, economic, and political situations that fuel the spread of the virus. In this response, the church has entered into a contested moral minefield, in which it is attempting socially and sexually to discipline its members, particularly its youthful constituency. These messages reach many young people, who form the bulk of the membership of this church. Many strive to follow the church's teachings, but do not accept them uncritically, and some refuse to be morally disciplined by them.
Phiri, Isabel A. “A Theological Analysis of the Voices of Teenage Girls on ‘men’s Role in the Fight against HIV/AIDS’ in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, no. 120 (November 2004): 34–45.
AbstractThe HIV / AIDS epidemic continues to evolve and has now reached pandemic proportions in South Africa and other developing countries throughout the world. HIV / AIDS presents a challenge to the well-being of individuals and to the public health of proportions unprecedented in modern history. While the challenge is scientific and medical, it is also psychological, legal, economic, social, ethical and theological. It is no longer a question of "why" the church should respond but rather "how" the church ought to respond. When the churches' response to the HIV / AIDS pandemic is analysed within the framework of the disaster management continuum, one gains a schematic perspective of the current responses as well the gaps in such responses.
Qakisa, Mpine. “The Media Representation of Women and HIV/AIDS. How It Affects Preventative Messages.” Missionalia: Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 29, no. 2 (August 1, 2001): 304–20.
AbstractThe media's message about AIDS is skewed. AIDS is portrayed as a disease of ""sinners"" such as prostitutes, homosexuals and people with multiple partners. Popular media continue to carry reports of people who are deliberately infected by sufferers who are seeking revenge. Researchers have also found that the power of any media report is not embedded solely in the individual message but enters a polluted world.
Rakoczy, Susan. “Christology in the Context of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic.” Grace & Truth 18, no. 2 (August 2001): 5–15.
Rosnes, Ellen Vea, Kåre Kristensen, and Christine Fanta. “Tous contre le VIH-SIDA (2002-2005): Évaluation de la 1ère phase du Programme de lutte contre le VIH/SIDA de l’Église Evangélique Luthérienne du Cameroun.” Centre for Intercultural Communication, 2006, 1–44.
AbstractAll Against AIDS (PLS) started in September 2002, and is coordinated by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Cameroon (EELC). The project is mainly financed by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad). From 2003 the Norwegian Missionary Society (NMS) have been responsible for the project and the Centre for Intercultural Communication (SIK) ensure the monitoring.
Ruele, Moji. “Doing Theology in the Era of HIV/AIDS: A Critical Evaluation of the Theology and Religious Studies Department, University of Botswana.” Missionalia: Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 29, no. 2 (August 1, 2001): 161–73.
AbstractThis article descriptionbes and evaluates the role, of the Department of Theology and Religious Studies at the University of Botswana in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Several members of staff and students have undertaken research projects and papers have been read at departmental seminars on HIV/AIDS. Members of the department have been involved in community service to victims of AIDS, including counselling and burying the victims.
Ruele, Moji. “The Diaconal and Liberation Role of the Church in the Fight against HIV / AIDS in Botswana.” Botswana Notes & Records 35, no. 1 (January 1, 2003): 141–46.
AbstractIn my view the church is more challenged than ever before to develop a theology, which is life, based. The development of such a theology would allow the church not only to preach and minister the Word of God to the suffering effectively, but also provide practical service to those who are directly infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. The church is also challenged to act decisively, because beside, the fact that HIV/AIDS is a matter of life and death, it has raised questions, which are always anguishing and in most cases difficult to answer.
Ruether, Kirsten. “Stirring the Spirits in a Baffled Struggle for Constructive AIDS Politics. A Report on the ‘Aids in Context’ Conference Johannesburg 4-7 April 2001.” Missionalia: Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 29, no. 2 (August 1, 2001): 321–41.
AbstractThe article gives an account of the 'AIDS in Context' conference held at the University of the Witwatersrand in April 2001. It adopts a postmodern approach that concentrates on fragmented narratives and the construction of knowledge through competing discourses. It gives a critical ""who's who"" of the conference which shows that a diverse spectrum of qualified people (mainly activists) participated, who took their motivation from very different backgrounds.
Schmid, Barbara. “AIDS Discourses in the Church: What We Say and What We Do.” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, no. 125 (July 2006): 91–103.
AbstractWOMEN'S REPRESENTATIONS IN THE DISCOURSE ON SIDA IN SUB- SAHARIAN AFRICA This article is concerned with the discourse and representations of women and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender remains largely a forgotten or a mainly rhetorical dimension in the dominant discourses. New practices, more participatory interventions involving new social actors, including gender-sensitive health and educational strategies, are emerging.
LA REPRESENTATION DES FEMMES DANS LE DISCOURS SUR LE SIDA EN AFRIQUE SUB-SAHARIENNE L'article traite du discours et des représentations des femmes séropositives ou malades du sida en Afrique sub-saharienne. La dimension du genre est généralement absente dans le discours et les pratiques dominants. De nouvelles procédures de prévention tenant compte de l'inégalité entre les sexes (« gender-sensitive ») sont mises en place, avec la participation des personnes concernées par la maladie.
Sempane, Lempye J., and Maake J. Masango. “Caring for the Carer in the Era of HIV Diagnosis.” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 69, no. 2 (January 15, 2013): 5 pages.
AbstractThe care of terminally ill patients can be physically, emotionally as well as psychologically exhausting. In the era where everyone is busy with his or her hectic daily schedule, caring for someone diagnosed with HIV on her or his deathbed can be a daunting challenge. Caring for someone dying of AIDS does not only challenge the physical being but rather leaves the carer emotionally drained. What was of concern to the author was to see the struggle that the caregiver goes through whilst caring for the sufferer. More often than not, pastoral care and counselling concentrate mainly on the pain and the suffering of the sick person. In the process, pastoral care loses sight of the agony, the emotional strain and, above all, the trauma of the caregivers in their search for answers as they care for the infected. This scenario has prompted the author to look into the theology of caring with an emphasis on pastoral care of the carers with a view of alleviating their emotional burden in caring for the HIV patients.
Snyman, D., and L. Kretzschmar. “Being and Becoming ‘Fully Human’ in an HIV-Positive World : HIV/AIDS and Feminist Christian Spirituality.” Acta Theologica 11, no. Supplement 1 (January 1, 2008): 198–220.
AbstractFeminists have researched the link between gender and HIV/AIDS and shown that women are not always morally responsible for being HIV-positive. This article contributes to the debate by presenting a systematic discussion of women's experience of HIV/AIDS and spirituality. It offers a model of full humanity that interprets the links between HIV/AIDS, poverty, and gender and uses feminist spirituality as a resource for transformed healing. The model was developed by weaving together the interpreted experiences of black, HIV-positive women participants with the teachings of feminist Christian spirituality. This research study shows that in responding to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, it is necessary to adopt an integrative, multifaceted and holistic approach that embodies the gender perspective so that the fully human spirituality of people and women in particular, is enhanced.
Soédé, Nathanae͏̈l Yaovi. “Sida: une question éthique globale: approche africaine.” Église et théologie 23, no. 3 (1992): 361–361.
AbstractEven though the Hebrew Bible tells us nothing directly about HIV/AIDS it is used by many people as a source of authority on contemporary ethical issues and therefore it is important to see what it does say about illness, health and healing.
Stinton, Diane B. “‘Into Africa’: Contextual Research Methods for Theology and HIV and AIDS in Africa.” Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 31, no. 1 (2012): 11–24.
AbstractThere is within the history of Christian worship practices a long tradition of someone offering a sermon to those gathered for worship. The primary means for many Christians throughout the world of receiving Christian education and guidance is by listening to sermons. There is generally embedded in all Christian preaching some attempt on the part of the preacher to share a worldview based upon the his or her biblical and theological interpretation of the meaning of faith and their application to daily living. This article explores how the sermon can be a source of religious instruction and aspect of pastoral caring for those infected and affected by HIV and AIDS. The article also suggests that such sermons can be a form of advocating social justice for those who are stigmatized because of their HIV status. Note: The people mentioned in this article, are real but, their names, Rob, Inspiration and Pastor Able are fictitious for reasons of confidentiality. "My Africa is fading and no one sees or cares that it is happening."
Togarasei, Lovemore. “Pauline Challenge to African Masculinities : Reading Pauline Texts in the Context of HIV/AIDS : Hope for HIV/Aids Patients.” Acta Theologica 2012, no. Supplement 6 (January 1, 2012): 148–60.
AbstractThis article discusses Pauline masculinity in the context of HIV/AIDS. If any success against HIV/AIDS is to be achieved, men need to be constructively involved in this struggle rather than merely being vilified. It is directed towards those who want to live by the ideals set by Paul. The article argues that in many ways Paul challenges dangerous masculinities and that, if his challenge is taken seriously, Christian communities may witness a decline in HIV prevalence. The article focuses specifically on Paul's teaching on marriage and sex.
Togarasei, Lovemore. “Teaching Old Testament Studies In Zimbabwe’s Theological Institutions In The HIV/AIDS Era.” Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research 14, no. 4 (November 2002): 254–71.
AbstractThere is no doubt that HIV/AIDS is humanity’s greatest enemy in this century. Millions of people have been affected and infected by this disease. In Zimbabwe statistics have it that about 2000 people die of HIV/AIDS related diseases every week. A lot of resources are spent in caring for the infected and the affected. With this scenario, HIV/AIDS no longer has to be seen as a medical problem.- It is now a social problem and so every sector of the society has to think deeply on how it can 'make a difference' in dealing with HIV/AIDS. This article argues that the teaching of Biblical Studies in Zimbabwe's theological institutions should be geared towards addressing the problem. It argues for the centrality of Biblical Studies in both theological institutions and Christian societies.' It shows how the Bible has been used to address human problems and how a Biblical studies course taking cognisancy of the HIV/AIDS problem can be rewarding. It ends by suggesting some topics and instructional methodologies to be used in teaching Biblical Studies in Zimbabwe's theological institutions in the era of HIV/AIDS.
Tonda, Joseph. “Le sida, maladie de Dieu, du diable et de la sorcellerie.” Sciences sociales et santé 25, no. 4 (2007): 35–48.
Toren-Lekkerkerker, Berdine van den. “Beyond Fate and Hopelessness: The Need for a Contextual Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention Programmes in the Evangelical Christian Community of French-Speaking Africa.” Transformation 31, no. 1 (January 2014): 11–20.
Twesigye, Emmanuel K., Aden S. Benedicts, and Mollie W. Benedicts. “The Ethics of HIV / AIDS and the Rise of an Apocalyptic Mariologist Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments : The Challenge of HIV / AIDS to Christian Theology.” Scriptura : Journal for Contextual Hermeneutics in Southern Africa 89, no. 1 (January 1, 2005): 456–68.
AbstractThis article offers an assessment of the significance of The Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God (MRTCG) in Uganda. It describes how the MRTCG leaders proposed celibacy and physical withdrawal from the supposed "corrupt, evil and damned world, " and urged their followers to wait for God to destroy the world and to save them through the Blessed Virgin Mary. Tragically, when their apocalyptic prophecies failed to materialize, the MRTCG leaders ritually killed hundreds of their followers in 2000 hoping to save them and through martyrdom, to deliver them directly to God in heaven. It suggests that this movement has to be understood within the context of the rise of HIV / Aids pandemic in Uganda. It describes the socio-economic, cultural, medical and political factors prevailing in Uganda (1981- 2000) and shows how the MRTCG responded to such circumstances. The final section sketches some of the subsequent developments concerning the fight against HIV / Aids in Uganda.
Van den Toren-Lekkerkerker, Berdine. “Beyond Fate and Hopelessness : The Need for a Contextual Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention Programmes in the Evangelical Christian Community of French-Speaking Africa.” Transformation: An International Journal of Holistic Mission Studies 31, no. 1 (January 1, 2014): 11–20.
AbstractAwareness, care and preventative action regarding HIV/AIDS, and those affected by it, is growing in the evangelical Christian Community in French-speaking Sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, even though the issues seem to be addressed through teaching and preaching in the churches, the real issues, questions and struggles of the people are not discussed. This article describes some of the most important outcomes of a qualitative research in this people group, looking at the values and beliefs around sexuality and community and what impact they have on current HIV/AIDS prevention practices and strategies. This description highlights the seeming discrepancy between people’s values and their daily lives, the role community can play – as both a community of grace and a countercultural yet contextually relevant community, and the role of leaders, grass-root communities and partnership processes in strategy development. This article argues for a contextual relevant approach in which the specific evangelical worldview is encountered as a possible strength, rather than a problem.
Wildsmith, Andrew. “AIDS and Theology: Introduction.” Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 31, no. 1 (2012): 1–4.
Wyngaard, Arnau Van. “Addressing the Spiritual Needs of People Infected with and Affected by HIV and AIDS in Swaziland.” Journal of Social Work in End-of-Life & Palliative Care 9, no. 2–3 (2013): 226–40.
AbstractIn terms of the social involvement of the Christian church within the community, it would not be an overstatement to say that never before in history has there been a greater challenge facing the church than the present, finding a way to bring hope to those suffering due to the HIV / AIDS pandemic. Yet, in spite of the enormity of this pandemic, it is possible to make a huge difference in people's lives, making use of a few willing people and a fairly conservative budget. In this article the author attempts to describe the way in which a very small congregation, where the average weekly attendance at church services is seldom more than fifty people and where nearly all members live close to or under the breadline, started making a noticeable difference in their community. Motivated by God's love for them, they decided to share this love in a practical way with all those in the community suffering due to HIV / AIDS and other serious illnesses. This is a story of hope, not only for those who receive help, but even more so, for those who want to give help.
Wyngaard, Arnau Van. “Towards a Theology of HIV / AIDS.” Verbum et Ecclesia 27, no. 1 (January 1, 2006): 265–90.
AbstractIn a world which is slowly but surely being devastated by the HIV / AIDS pandemic, the church needs to get involved in the fight against this disease. In many places the church has conveniently denied that HIV / AIDS has anything to do with them. In this paper the author argues for the necessity of thinking theologically about the reality of HIV / AIDS , indicating that HIV / AIDS is not merely a matter of "sinners" becoming infected with a virus, but that certain circumstances are conducive towards the spreading of HIV / AIDS which need to be addressed if an impact is to be made on the spreading of the virus. Although many non-religious organisations are fighting this disease, the church is in an ideal situation to assist these bodies as it is already grounded within communities and already have integrity amongst a large part of the population. However, to achieve this goal the churches must be transformed in the face of the HIV / AIDS crisis, in order that they themselves may become a force for transformation - bringing healing, hope, and accompaniment to all infected with and affected by HIV / AIDS.
Zyl, Danie C. Van. “Holistic Healing : Old Testament Insights on Sickness and Healing - for Churches in Africa Confronted by HIV / Aids : : General.” Scriptura : Journal for Contextual Hermeneutics in Southern Africa 99, no. 1 (January 1, 2008): 312–20.
AbstractNotions on sickness and healing in the Old Testament are explored with reference to the HIV / Aids pandemic. Over and above simply collecting insights from the Old Testament, a more 'involved reading' of texts, particularly of Psalms, as suggested by Brueggemann, is argued and illustrated from Psalm 38. Perspectives from the Umwelt and the socio-religious reality in Ancient Israel are presented in order to create a framework for understanding Old Testament perspectives on sickness and healing. Furthermore, perspectives on sickness and healing from African world views and the practices in African faith healing churches are overviewed as a challenge to the African church to use the Old Testament in its dealings with people living with HIV and Aids.
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