AbstractThe history of the church in Africa reveals that socio political involvement is an integral part of its mission in, to, and for the world. In the present decade support for demo cratic governance has reached a new level. Through sermons, interviews, and seminars African church leaders have expressed deep concern about the oppressive nature of the one-party political system operating on the continent. In January 1990 Timothy Njoya, a Presbyterian minister in Kenya, preached a New Year's sermon in which he challenged African political leaders to reexamine their preference for single party government. He drew attention to the rapid disintegration of the political system in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Since many African political leaders had adopted the political ideologies of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, Njoya urged that they should also consider pursuing a democratic form of government, which Eastern Europe was then contemplating.' Other church leaders in Kenya, including Bishop David Gitari and Bishop Henry Okullu, against strong government opposi tion, have called for public debate on the need for democracy in Africa based on political pluralism. According to the newspaper African Christian, the church leaders "ignored President Arap Moi's order to put an end to the debate on [multiparty govern ment] in Kenya saying that the debate had not started and should, therefore, not be stopped."! Church leaders from West and Southern Africa also made similar public pronouncements. At a press conference in Cameroon in June 1990,Cardinal Christian Tumi of the Catholic Church argued that his country needed a multiparty system of government with an officially recognized opposition party. He expressed his conviction that a democratic form of government would help to deal with the problem of rampant corruption and other severe injustices in his country. He explained that the church in Cameroon had taken a strong stand against the govern ment because "people no longer see clearly where they are going and are beginning to despair/" In the same year Ghana established a forum for national debate on the type of democratic political institutions best suited for the nation, extending an invitation to all organizations and institutions in the country to participate. Although not officially included in the general invitation yet sensing the need for the church's involvement, the Christian Council of Ghana prepared a document entitled, "The Church and Ghana's Search for aNew Democratic System." The purpose of this study document was to "create an atmosphere that would ensure that its members get the opportunity as citizens of the country to share their views freely.:" What is remarkable about the stance taken by the Christian Council of Ghana is that the government-the Provi sional National Defense Council (PNDC)-had wanted to make sure that no other platforms were created for the debate except the one under the control of the government. Thus, the forum created by the Christian Council of Ghana was a radical challenge....
Adu-Gyampfi, Yaw. “God’s Wrath and Judgment on Ethnic Hatred and Hope for Victims of Ethnic Hatred in Obadiah: Implications for Africa.” Old Testament Essays 28 (2015): 11–30.
AbstractEthnic hatred has caused the loss of many lives on the African continent. In many cases, the victims of such hatred are left without hope for the future. The Book of Obadiah, however, shows that this is hope for such victims. A.-G.'s article looks at the book in terms of God's wrath and judgment on ethnic hatred, his assurance of justice, and his plan to give hope to victims of ethnic hatred. In the face of Judah's misfortune, the Edomites used their position of advantage to participate in the destruction of a "brother" nation. God, however, intends to act in justice with the result that Edom will be humbled and Judah will find hope. Victims of ethnic hatred in Africa should find comfort in the hope that God will act with justice also in their case so that those who had taken advantage of their misfortunes will be punished and the victims themselves will find a better future. [Adapted from published abstract: Christopher T. Begg] Abstract Number: OTA39-2016-FEB-582
Agang, Sunday B. The Impact of Ethnic, Political, and Religious Violence on Northern Nigeria, and a Theological Reflection on Its Healing. Carlisle: Langham Monographs, 2011.
AbstractThe problem of race, ethnicity and multi-culturalism is one critical universal issue of our time. Issues of race, ethnicity, language, culture and religion, bear an enourmous emotional content. South Africa is in a process of major socio-political changes, which inevitably bear within them all kinds of insecurities that need to be arrested and transformed, less these insecurities reach a point of distrust in the emerging transforming social order. ...
Autesserre, Séverine. The Trouble with the Congo: Local Violence and the Failure of International Peacebuilding. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
AbstractMulti-culturism is an inevitable phenomenon in the modern world. When it comes to the missiological realm, this becomes a relevant issue. Especially in a place like South Africa where whites and blacks live together, this issue is more crucial than in other places around the globe. A more critical question is how to solve multi-cultural issues missiologically in the midst of different people groups. This paper provides an example for proclaiming the gospel effectively in a multi-cultural setting. It deals with potential issues that may rise from multi-ethnic characteristics within churches in South Africa where the majority of church members consist of whites and blacks. Also, it seeks potential answers for the addressed issues. In the first part of the paper, it deals with concepts and various theories concerning ethnicity. Sociologically, ethnicity is categorized according to language, geography, and skin color but a key theme that should not be neglected is that ethnicity is a creation of God. There are two main streams regarding ethnicity. First is primordialist theory, which argues that identity is fixed, and the other is constructivism, which claims that ethnic identity is flexible in that it can be modified along the flow of history. In the middle part of the paper, biblical concepts of ethnicity and the evaluation of theories of ethnicity are introduced. Based on Gen. 10, Ex. 22, the Gospels, and Acts 10 and 15, the author argues that diversity of ethnicity is the creation of God rather than a curse, and both primordialist and constructivism approaches coexist in the bible. Distinguished from primordialist and constructivism approaches, the last part of the paper introduces a third approach based on universal equity principal that may enhance the possibility of accepting Zulu cultural aspects among white congregations when a culturally sensitive message is proclaimed. As examples, the tribal system and creation order, the tomb and resurrection of Jesus, and Jesus as the mediator are explained.
This paper is a suitable topic for dealing with ethnic issues within a multi-ethnic church, especially in the context of South Africa’s post-apartheid era. This paper also focuses on finding characteristics of one culture to connect with another culture utilizing the general equity principle with an attempt to avoid syncretism while preserving the core message of the Bible. It is expected that this paper will provide effective insights not only in South African church settings but in many mission fields and in diverse cultural settings where missionaries and native Christians are seeking for a harmony that is grounded on a biblical foundation. Ethnicity
, General Equity
, Ancestor worship
Baloyi, Elijah. “Language as a Dividing Factor amongst the Reformed Churches in South Africa: A Case Study of the Soutpansberg Synod.” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa 154 (March 2016): 43–59.
AbstractThis thesis deals with the relationship between the catholicity of the Church and ethnicity. South African congregations and churches have been studied two decades after the advent of democracy to discern their ecclesiological practices. The Roman Catholic, Anglican, Methodist, Lutheran, and Apostolic Faith Mission churches, which are among the five large historical mainline churches in South Africa by membership, were selected.
The first part of this thesis presents an analytical tool that has been derived from key documents of the Faith & Order movement and the World Council of Churches concerning the catholicity of the Church. An operative ecclesiology, originally proposed by Yves Congar and later developed by other theologians, has been used in order to reveal implicit and explicit ecclesiologies.
The second part of the thesis tests the catholicity of the Church as described in the analytical tool against an operative ecclesiology in South African congregations and churches twenty years after the dismantling of apartheid. Interviews with church leaders and case studies among sixcongregations located in the three largest municipalities have been carried out. An established body of source material has been analysed through the analytical tool about catholicity.
The most important conclusion generated by this thesis is that socio-economic conditions are significant ecclesiological structuring factors. Unequal power relationships, together with peoples’ geographic residential location, determined whether greater inter-ethnic interactions were possible. In general, reconciliation between people of diverse ethnicities was not sought or effected; but the churches’ organisations played a significant role in realising the catholicity of the Church.
Berggren, Erik. “Pieces in the Puzzle: A Local Study of Denominationalism and Ethnicity towards Unity in South Africa.” Svensk Missionstidskrift 93, no. 1 (2005): 87–113.
AbstractPost genocide commentaries on colonial Rwandan history have emphasized the centrality of the Hamitic Hypothesis in shaping Catholic leaders’ sociopolitical imagination concerning Hutu and Tutsi identities. For most scholars, the resulting racialist interpretation of Hutu and Tutsi categories poisoned Rwandan society and laid the groundwork for postcolonial ethnic violence. This paper challenges the simplicity of this standard narrative. Not only did colonial Catholic leaders possess a complex understanding of the terms ‘Hutu’ and ‘Tutsi’, but the Hutu-Tutsi question was not the exclusive or even dominant paradigm of late colonial Catholic discourse. Even after the eruption of Hutu-Tutsi tensions in the late 1950s, Catholic bishops and lay elites continued to interpret the Hutu-Tutsi distinction in a wide variety of ways. Catholic attitudes and the escalation of Hutu-Tutsi tensions stemmed more from contextual political factors than immutable anthropological theories, however flawed. Keywords
Rwanda, Catholic, Hutu, Tutsi, colonial, genocide
Carney, James Jay. “Waters of Baptism, Blood of Tribalism?” AFER 50, no. 1–2 (March 2008): 9–30.
Cloete, G. D. “South Africa and Paul’s Letter to the Galatians: A Struggle with Ethnicity and Race.” In Race and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Multicultural Dialogue in Comparative Perspective, 1–18, 2000.
AbstractMulticulturalism characterises today's world. The diversity of cultures and conflicting ethnic groups sharing the same territory pose a threat to local and world peace. We have come to the end of the nation' as well as the end of the 'state'homogeneous entities that are increasingly emasculated by instrumental reason qua techno-science and economic globalisation. Ethnic diversity is simultaneously a wealth and threat to African societies. African unity in the form of an ubuntu ethic offers a model to deal, with polyethnicity. Ethnocentrism is biologically rooted and operates through prejudice. Prejudice as a coping mechanism to deal with diversity has its value and limitations. It must be contained where it issues in xenophobia, ethnophobia and war. Polyethnic co-existence is a prerequisite for Africa to attain its developmental ideals as expressed in the NEPAD programme. The way in which ethno-philosophy and ethno-theology can aid this process is looked at.
Gatwa, Tharcisse. The Churches and Ethnic Ideology in the Rwandan Crises 1900–1994. Oxford: Regnum, 2005.
Gausset, Quentin. “From Domination to Participation: The Politics of Religion and Ethnicity in Northern Cameroon.” In Scriptural Politics: The Bible and the Koran as Political Models in the Middle East and Africa, edited by Niels Kastfelt, 185–202. London: Hurst & Company, 2004.
Godwin, Colin R., and Saphano R. Chol. “‘God Gave This Land to Us’: A Biblical Perspective on the Tension in South Sudan between Tribal Lands, Ethnic Identity and the Breadth of Christian Salvation.” Mission Studies: Journal of the International Association for Mission Studies 30, no. 2 (October 2013): 208–19.
AbstractLike many parts of Africa, South Sudan has experienced ethnic animosities which have led to violent clashes, destruction of property, and loss of life. Many of these conflicts are over land and resources and are rooted in a spiritual attachment to traditional tribal lands which are seen as gifts of God to both steward and protect. In dialogue with an African theology of place, this paper seeks to propose biblical foundations for ethnic coexistence, as seen in Acts 17:22-31, and to examine how Paul's Athenian sermon balances the ethnic particularities of land and tribe with the universal call to Christian salvation. Drawing on twenty interviews with South Sudanese nationals, this paper uses an integrated research method, accessing theological, biblical, and sociological perspectives to ask whether Acts 17 might suggest an approach to issues of land and tribalism in South Sudan.
Gofwen, Rotgaf. Religious Conflicts in Northern Nigeria and Nation Building: The Throes of Two Decades 1980–2000. Kaduna: Human Rights Monitor, 2004.
AbstractEthnic conflicts characterise much of Africa today. While Christian values are expected to foster national cohesion and identity, more often than not, Christianity has provided a convenient and effective rallying point around which ethnic conflicts are mobilised. This writer adopts a historical perspective to interrogate negative ethnicity and the Church in Africa using illustrations from Kenya. She challenges the Church to ‘re-route’ its mission for ‘love, justice and real humanity lived by Christ and based on him’ (Okolo).
Kastfelt, Niels. Religion and Politics in Nigeria: A Study in Middle Belt Christianity. London: British Academic Press, 1994.
Lentz, Carola. “Christianity, Colonial Rule, and Ethnicity: The Mission of the White Fathers among the Dagara (Ghana/Burkina Faso).” In Christianity and Social Change in Africa: Essays in Honor of J. D. Y. Peel, edited by Toyin Falola. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2005.
Lespinay, Charles de. “The Churches and the Genocide in the East African Great Lakes Region.” In In God’s Name: Genocide and Religion in the Twentieth Century, edited by Omer Bartov and Phyllis Mack, 161–79. New York: Berghahn Books, 2001.
Lynch, Hollis R. “The Native Pastorate Controversy and Cultural Ethnocentrism in Sierra Leone 1871-4.” In The History of Christianity in West Africa, edited by Ogbu U. Kalu, 270–92. London: Longman, 1980.
Macola, Giacomo. “Historical and Ethnographical Publications in the Vernaculars of Colonial Zambia: Missionary Contributions to the ‘Creation of Tribalism.’” Journal of Religion in Africa 33, no. 4 (2003): 343–64.
AbstractThis paper examines the chronology and attributes of literate ethno-history in Northern Rhodesia. While the earliest published authors were invariably members of missionary societies whose evangelical policies were predisposed towards the Christianisation of local chieftaincies, the expansion and Africanisation of vernacular historiography from the late 1930s owed much to the intervention of the colonial government in the publishing sphere. A survey of their contents shows that vernacular histories and ethnographies mirrored preconceptions and preoccupations typical of the times of their composition. By placing these texts in the political and economic context of the colony, and by providing new data on their wide circulation among literate Africans, the article contends that published ethnohistories were one of the principal cultural components of the process of crystallisation of ethnic identities in the middle and late colonial era.
Maimela, Simon S. “Cultural and Ethnic Diversity in Promotion of Democratic Change.” In Democracy and Development in Africa: The Role of Churches, edited by Jesse N. K. Mugambi, 196. Nairobi: All Africa Conference of Churches, 1997.
Maimela, Simon S. “Culture and Ethnic Diversity as Sources of Curse and Blessing in the Promotion of Democratic Change.” In Archbishop Tutu: Prophetic Witness in South Africa, edited by Leonard D. Hulley and Louise Kretzschmar. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau, 1997.
Malamat, Avraham. “Tribal Societies: Biblical Genealogies and African Lineage Systems.” In The Jerusalem Congress on Black Africa and the Bible, April 24-30, 1972 : Proceedings, edited by Engelbert Mveng and R. J. Z. Werblowsky, 147–54. Jerusalem, 1972.
AbstractFocusing on the mid-nineteenth-century encounters between missionaries from the Norddeutsche Missionsgesellschaft (NMG) and the Ewe, this essay shows that the NMG employed a romanticist, Herderian notion of culture and nationhood to establish order and impose power, and sought to prevent Ewe converts from adopting Western influences in their own way. Through an analysis of the NMG's attitude to language and the nation, its linguistic and ethnographic studies, which were devoted to turning 'scattered Ewe tribes' into one 'people', and the education of Ewe mission workers in Westheim (Germany), it is argued that, rather than denying African converts their 'own culture', attempts were made to lock them up in it. Missionary cultural politics, the essay argues, thrived on a paradoxical coexistence of appeals made to both the new notion of the nation as a marker of 'civilisation' and an 'authentic' state of being. Thus, the NMG used the notion of the nation as a means to exert power, to assert the superiority of the West and to control converts' exposure to foreign ideas.
Murhula, Toussaint K. “‘Love Your Enemies’: A Challenge to Ethnic Conflicts in Contemporary Africa.” SEDOS Bulletin 36, no. 9–10 (September 2004): 230–34.
Mwaura, Philomena N. “Christian Identity and Ethnicity in Africa: Reflections on the Gospel of Reconciliation.” In African Theology on the Way: Current Conversations, edited by Diane B. Stinton. London: The Society For Promoting Christian Knowledge, 2011.
AbstractStinton has edited the work of prominent African theologians, making their writings accessible at an introductory level. Some African scholars have written new pieces for the book, others have given permission for articles to be condensed and simplified in style. Kwame Bediako, Benezet Bujo, Philomena Mwara and Isabel Phiri are just four of the theologians featured.
Ng’ang’a, Moses N. “The Theological Significance of Acts 17:24-28 for Resolving Tribal Conflicts: A Case Study of Molo Constituency, Kenya.” Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 27, no. 1 (2008): 35–44.
AbstractIn view of the ethnic crisis in Africa and the complexities of the discipline of Biblical Studies, one wonders how African biblical scholarship could address ethnic issues in Africa through its study of the Bible and its Biblical Studies curriculum. I identify three ways of addressing ethnicity through Biblical Studies which I argue for, make sense of, and distinguish by means of methodology (broadly conceived), and the goals of African biblical scholarship.
Nyende, Peter. “Ethnic Studies: An Urgent Need in Theological Education in Africa.” International Review of Mission 98, no. 1 (April 1, 2009): 132–46.
AbstractAbstract By virtue of its subject matter, theological education ought to infuse life with morals and values, thus moulding a just, moral and peaceful society such as is envisaged in God's telos for His world. And in line with its aims, theological education provides knowledge and skills to people to enable them to serve the church, together with the wider society where the church lives. A theological curriculum appropriate to its context ensures success in both these aspects of theological education. To their credit Africa's theological institutions seem to have curricula which are relevant to Africa's context. Success in sustaining the relevance of these curricula lies in continually revising the curriculum so that it does not become dated. One such urgent revision is in the offering of ethnic studies which is necessitated by the ethnic crisis in Africa. For this reason, ethnic studies in the curriculum of theological education in Africa are imperative. In the essay four ways are proposed in which ethnic studies could be included in the curriculum of theological education in Africa.
Nyende, Peter. “Ethnicity in Theological Education in Africa.” In Handbook of Theological Education in Africa, edited by Isabel A. Phiri and Dietrich Werner, 600–610. Wipf and Stock, 2015.
AbstractThis Handbook of Theological Education in Africa is a fascinating witness to the explosive status quo of Theological Education. The historical and regional (inter alia) surveys open our eyes and ears to see and hear how fast it has taken root historically, geographically, and ecumenically. The landscape of African Theological Education has changed drastically during the final twenty to thirty years of the last century. There is very much to appreciate about it and what has been achieved. We have grounds to make us rejoice, and for which to thank the Lord. John Mbiti, Theologian and Philosopher, former Director of Bossey Ecumenical Institute The Handbook of Theological Education in Africa is unique, comprehensive and ambitious in its aim and scope. It is: • truly interdenominationally oriented, bringing perspectives from all major Christian traditions on the African continent • broad in geographical extension, collecting voices from all major regions of the vast African continent • life-centered and ecological in orientation, as voices are brought together on an impressive number of new key themes and contextual challenges for theological education in Africa • grounded in expertise, drawing on a pan-African unprecedented gathering of leading African theologians, men and women. We hope that this book, in its print and later digital versions, will make its way into the hands of African theological educators, will inspire students and will be a standard reference volume in all major African theological libraries, in both universities and church-related seminaries. Olav Fykse Tveit, WCC General Secretary The challenges of inclusiveness in African theological education are before us. The challenge to be ecumenical, meaning all Christians together; inclusiveness as serving a multi-religious continent with its islands is before ecumenical theological education. The challenges in terms of responding theologically to the issues that confront Africa - all of Africa - the religious, political, social, cultural issues and the challenges of people's spirituality and identity are to be on the radar of ecumenical theological education if theology is to be relevant in Africa. This Handbook of Theological Education in Africa has something for everybody. Mercy Oduyoye, Director of Institute of Women in Religion and Culture in Accra, Ghana This Handbook of Theological Education in Africa is a wake-up call for African churches to give proper prominence to theological education institutions and their programmes which serve them. We congratulate the editorial team for their magnificent work in bringing this Handbook together. This is a timely gift of the Church in Africa to the worldwide Church and will serve many generations of African theologians to come. Andre Karamaga, AACC General Secretary
Ochieng Onyalla, Don Bosco. “Tribalism in Religious Communities in Africa.” AFER 47, no. 3 (September 2005): 160–83.
AbstractThere is no compelling reason to rule out the presence of Christianity in the coastal cities of North Africa such as Apollonia and Leptis as early as a.d.100, and in their surrounding villages as early as 125-150. This installment [see record 54-2085] of a series on early Libyan Christianity treats the Phoenician-African connection; Judaic ethnicity in Cyrene before the Jewish wars; the Jewish wars--from Jerusalem to Cyrene; Cyrenaic culture in antiquity and archaeology; early Christian architecture in Cyrene; five major layers of Cyrenaic archaeology; and highlights of Cyrenaic archaeology.--C.R.M. Abstract Number: NTA55-2011-1-726
Ong, Andrew. “Neo-Calvinism and Ethnic Churches in Multiethnic Contexts.” Journal of Reformed Theology 12, no. 3 (2018): 296–320.
AbstractDespite neo-Calvinism’s thorny historic relationship with apartheid, this article retrieves from neo-Calvinism to contribute to the contemporary evangelical conversation about ethnic and multiethnic churches. Scholars of various disciplines have commonly accepted a link between neo-Calvinism and South Africa’s apartheid. Meanwhile, neo-Calvinists labor to sever this link, wishing to disentangle their tradition from apartheid’s evils, such as the enforcement of racially segregated churches. In reaction to the evils of such segregation, many contemporary Evangelicals have advocated for multiethnic churches that demographically reflect their ethnically diverse communities on the basis of Christian unity. This has implicitly and explicitly challenged the legitimacy of ethnic churches. This article contends that despite the link between neo-Calvinism and apartheid, and despite neo-Calvinist efforts to sever this link, neo-Calvinism offers good biblical and theological support for the establishment of ethnic churches in multiethnic contexts without at all denigrating multiethnic churches or falling into the evils of apartheid.
Onwunta, Uma A., and H. Jurgens Hendriks. “Missio Dei and Ethnic Diversity in Africa: A Reflection on the Metaphor of Community.” Scriptura 101 (2009): 314–25.
AbstractThis article explores the concept of the missio Dei as it affects the Christian
missionary enterprise in Africa. It offers a brief overview of the theocentric understanding
of mission as a holistic approach that does not dichotomize between
humanity and creation but rather affirms the wholeness of existence in the African
primal world view. Secondly, the implication of the missio Dei for the ethno-religious
diversity in Africa and the Nigerian nation in particular, is explored. Thirdly,
a call for a new missional hermeneutics, especially on the metaphor of community,
is advocated. The essay argues that the way to proceed is by focusing on Jesus, the
heartbeat of whose ministry was reconciliation, compassionate response to human
needs, and whose actions show forth the horizon of the coming world of shalom –
justice, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit.
Orji, Cyril. “Ethnic and Religious Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa.” AFER 49, no. 1–2 (March 2007): 37–61.
Pieterse, H., Peer Scheepers, and J. Ven. “Plural Religious Beliefs: A Comparison between the Dutch and White South Africans.” Hts Teologiese Studies-Theological Studies 49 (January 23, 1993): 189–207.
AbstractThe concept of religious beliefs is distilled from the perspective of one’s belief in God. With regard to this belief in God we propose to distinguish between two dimensions: The personal versus the a-personal characte r of God and his transcendent versus his immanent nature. This leaves us with a plurality of beliefs in God. Does this plurality of beliefs exist in the minds of people in the Netherlands and in South Africa? Together with this we explore the relationship between church involvement and plural religious beliefs in both countries. We have found a sharp contrast between the Dutch and a sample of church-going white South Africans regarding secularization and church involvement. Nevertheless, we have found a highly similar structure of religious beliefs among both people.
Pieterse, Hendrik J. C., Peer Scheepers, and Johannes A. van der Ven. “Religious Beliefs and Ethnocentrism: A Comparison between the Dutch and White South Africans.” Journal of Empirical Theology 4, no. 2 (1991): 64–85.
Sanneh, Lamin O. “Bible Translation and Ethnic Mobilization in Africa.” In New Paradigms for Bible Study: The Bible in the Third Millennium, edited by Robert M. Fowler, Edith L. Blumhofer, and Fernando F. Segovia, 155–81. London: T & T Clark International, 2004.
Sanneh, Lamin O. “Domesticating the Transcendent. The African Transformation of Christianity: Comparative Reflections on Ethnicity and Religious Mobilization in Africa.” Bible Translation, 2002, 70–85.
AbstractTranslation of the Bible into local African languages produced profound changes and develoments in language, culture and ethnicity, creating materials that awakened a sense of local confidence, purpose and identity. Missionaries needed to transmit Christianity in African ethnic languages and to systematically study their cultures. By using indigenous religious and cultural categories, Bible translators validated ordinary people rather than the powerful and Christianity became domesticated in Africa. James Green's inquiry into religious categories in Zulu culture revealed Zulu patterns of thinking as a suitable framework for Christianity. For Africans, God is a transcendent personality who acts and speaks, judges human actions, and is entitled to faithful worship. Whereas Africans embrace the tribal Jewish Jesus as their brother, model and savior, the cosmic Christ and the intellectualized European search for the historical Jesus find no home in Africa. Western forms of Christianity have been transformed. See also #1604. [Abstracted by: Carol C. Mock.] Abstract Number: OTA26-2003-OCT-1591
Sanneh, Lamin O. Religion and the Variety of Culture: A Study in Origin and Practice. Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press International, 1996.
Sawyerr, Harry. “Persons in Relationship (an Examination of Three Facets of Tribal Society).” In Les Religions Africaines Comme Source de Valeurs de Civilisation: Colloque de Cotonou 16-22 Août 1970, edited by Société Africaine de Culture, 189–204. Paris: Présence africaine, 1972.
AbstractVis-à-vis ethnic and cultural intolerance, poverty, and the need for foreign investment in South Africa, S. draws on archaeological parallels from Stratum I at Ekron which suggests that Philistines, Judeans, and Israelites worked together in factories, sharing their capital, knowledge, and skills. He concludes that such seemingly harmonious and prosperous coexistence at Ekron would only have been possible if the groups there accepted and tolerated ethnic diversity and worked together under Neo-Assyrian rule--a valuable model of tolerance that can assist South Africans in their quest to alleviate poverty. [Abstracted by: Jonathan S. Greer] Abstract Number: OTA34-2011-FEB-103
Smith, Gina G., and Stanislaw Grodz, eds. Religion, Ethnicity and Transnational Migration between West Africa and Europe. Leiden: Brill, 2014.
AbstractEthnocentrism is one of the greatest obstacles to peace on the African continent. Taking the Church as Family of God as a model of evangelization, this work explores means of inculturating the Gospel message in African cultures in order to transform them, make them blossom and enable Africans to live as authentic Christians in their cultures. It examines the values of African extended families and the prospects of interreligious dialogue as means through which the various religious bodies can effectively work together to overcome ethnocentrism and its evil effects and thus establish a wholesome African society where every human person is at home irrespective of family orientation or tribal background.
Tarimo, Aquiline. “Ethnicity, Common Good, and the Church in Contemporary Africa.” SEDOS Bulletin 32, no. 8–9 (August 2000): 227–34.
Tshaka, Rothney S. “Do Our Theological Methodologies Help Us to Deal with Situations of Violence in Black Communities, Specifically Afrophobia?” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa 138 (November 2010): 124–35.
Waruta, D. W. “Tribalism as a Moral Problem in Contemporary Africa.” In Moral and Ethical Aspects of African Christianity: Explorative Essays in Moral Theology, edited by Jesse N. K. Mugambi and Anne Nasimiyu-Wasike, 119–35. Nairobi: Acton Publishers, 1992.
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