Arowelle, P. J. “The Scattered Children of God (John 11:52): A Johannine Ecclesial Cliché.” In Johannine Communities, edited by W. Amewowo, P. Arowele, and B. Balembo, 181–201. Kinshasa: Catholic Faculty of Kinshasa, 1991.
Abstract[An important clue indicating the overall unity of the Gospel of John, including chapter 21, is often overlooked. This is the numerical value of 153 fish caught by the disciples according to 21:11, which represents the mathematical triangle of 17. The key text for interpreting the passage is Ezek 47:10, prophesying streams of living water flowing from the temple in the last days to make the Dead Sea fresh and full offish. These symbolize numerically the children of God who receive life through believing in the signs given by Jesus, which are enumerated in the gospel. A complex but consistent numerical pattern or gematria can be demonstrated to underpin the structure and thematic of the whole gospel, particularly linking the Prologue with the Epilogue, which is expressed in the number 153.]
Bernard, Gerard, and Dan Lioy. “Jesus as Creator in the Miraculous Signs of the Fourth Gospel and the Influence of Isaiah’s Creation Theology.” Conspectus : The Journal of the South African Theological Seminary 29, no. 1 (March 1, 2020): 5–25.
AbstractThis essay is the first in a two-part series on the theme of creation in the Fourth Gospel. The essays are based on the author’s dissertation written under the supervision of Professor Dan Lioy. In this particular essay, the investigation focuses on the portrayal of Jesus as Creator in the miraculous signs, as proposed by some scholars. The traditionally accepted seven miraculous signs present several significant features which portray Jesus as Creator. The features depict Jesus as the Word incarnate, who utters words to effect creative transformation. He is sent by the Father to the world in order to accomplish the work of new creation, which is partly expressed in the miraculous signs. The depiction of Jesus as Creator in the miraculous signs corresponds with the ideas in Isaiah 55:11. The ‘sending’ of the Son in the miraculous signs (the Gospel) parallels the ‘going forth’ of Yahweh’s word from his mouth (Isa 55:11) and the efficacy of Jesus’s words corresponds with the efficacy of Yahweh’s word (dbr; LXX: rh?ma). The efficacy of Yahweh’s word is witnessed in Jesus Christ.
Bidzoga, G. R. “Jesus, the Way to the Father in John 14:1–14: A Link with the African Situation Today.” Hekima Review 35 (2006): 33–45.
Botha, Darius. “Die mens geaffekteer deur kanker: Voorlopige bakens geidentifiseer met die oog op die prediking na aanleiding van Jesus se afskeidsgesprek in die Johannes-evangelie.” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 72, no. 2 (April 2016): 1–8.
AbstractThe life of a person affected by cancer becomes a confusion of emotions, experiences and tumultuous events. This takes place with immediate effect and can be summarised in one word 'havoc'. The question that comes to mind in this article is: In which way can preaching guide the person affected by cancer, to equip this person to find both sense and meaning in this life. The farewell speech of Jesus in the Gospel of John will serve as departure for the stipulation of the beacons for the preaching in the guidance of the person affected with cancer. The aim of this article is firstly to show that the person affected by cancer has specific needs concerning preaching, secondly that the farewell speech of Jesus in the Gospel of John assists the preaching with certain beacons and thirdly to motivate that the metaphor of a 'second' is the most suitable for this kind of preaching. The purpose with this article is that the researcher wants to emphasise that the person affected by cancer can still experience sense and meaning in this life.
Botha, J. Eugene, and P. A. Rousseau. “For God Did Not Love the Whole World - Only Israel! John 3:16 Revisited.” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 61, no. 4 (2005): 1149–68.
Abstract[In this first of a seríes of two articles dealing with Johannine irony, the current state of affairs with regard to the understanding of Johannine irony is examined. The basic sources and their approaches are discussed. This discussion is followed by an examination of some of the problematic instances these works refer to. It is argued that there are some serious problems regarding the understanding of Johannine irony and that a significant re-examination of this phenomenon in John is necessary. In the second of the two articles probable causes of this problematic situation are indicated and some suggestions made as to how a better understanding and explanation of Johannine irony might be achieved.]
Botha, J. Eugene. Jesus and the Samaritan Woman: A Speech Act Reading of John 4:1-42. Leiden: Brill, 1991.
AbstractIt is shown in this article that the Gospel of John describes a battle between darkness and light, life and death, chaos and God's new order. Although the certainty is given right at the beginning of the Gospel that the darkness will not overcome the light, God does not take the possibility of darkness away. Darkness in John is darkness of the mind, not seeing the light, not comprehending, not accepting and not believing the Word. The battle between light and darkness is described at two levels - the visible level that you can see with your eyes and the invisible level that only those who have been regenerated by the Spirit can see. Although it may seem that the contrary is true, God is in control of both levels. Jesus made the invisible visible with his words and deeds and, eventually, with his resurrection. The diakonoi (servants) of Jesus are called to follow him in his task to honour the father by speaking the words of the father and doing the work of the father. In doing this, they will make the invisible God visible by their diakonia (service). Real social change will take place in God's time, and he will use the diakonia of his children to bring order in the chaos, like he did in the beginning when he created the heavens and the earth. The results of the research are used to suggest guidelines on social change in South Africa.
Cornelius, E. “I Heard the Voice of the Samaritan Woman in John 4:1-46.” Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif 49, no. 3–4 (2008): 69–87.
Culpepper, R. Alan, and Jörg Frey. The Opening of John’s Narrative (John 1:19-2:22): Historical, Literary, and Theological Readings from the Colloquium Ioanneum 2015 in Ephesus. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen Zum Neuen Testament 385, 2017.
AbstractAfter the editors' eight-page foreword, the fourteen essays in this volume are on the testimony of John's narrative and the silence of the Johannine narrator (G. L. Parsenios); recurring characters in Jn 1:19-2:11--a narrative-critical and reader-oriented approach (C. Karakolis); the voice in the wilderness and the way of the Lord--a scriptural frame for John's witness to Jesus (C. H. Williams); baptism with water and with Holy Spirit--purification in the Gospel of John (M. M. Thompson); Jesus as the Lamb of God (1:29, 36)--metaphorical Christology in the Fourth Gospel (R. Zimmermann); the unnamed disciple in 1:40 (U. Schnelle); 1:51 and Johannine Christology (W. Loader); angels in 1:51 (J. G. van der Watt); the prototypical sign--a commentary study on 2:1-11 (Frey); the wedding at Cana (2:1-11)--reading the text in the cultural context of Ephesus (C. R. Koester); Jesus and his mother in 2:4 (A. Reinhartz); spatial and temporal construction in the Gospel of John and the expositional function of 2:13-22 (M. Theobald); 2:13-22 in the plot and theology of the Fourth Gospel (J. Zumstein); and Temple violation--reading 2:13-22 at the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus (Culpepper). Abstract Number: NTA62-2018-2
De Villiers, P. G. R. “Union with the Transcendent God in Philo and John’s Gospel.” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 70, no. 1 (2014): 1–8.
AbstractThis collection of 22 articles, five of which had not previously been published in English, includes publications from 1980 to 2014. In his introduction, Professor Menken states: “I have been attracted especially by Johannine Christology and by the Johannine use of the OT and Jewish tradition: in an intriguing way, both are so to speak anti-Jewish in a Jewish way, that is, in both fields we can perceive how Christian Jews articulated their position over against other Jews” (1).
Deventer, Cornelia van. “Performing John : The Participatory Nature of the Fourth Gospel.” Neotestamentica 53, no. 3 (December 1, 2019): 517–34.
AbstractScholars often refer to the term “implied audience” to describe the ideal audience an author intends to fashion through a specific story or narrative. The author of the Fourth Gospel articulates the purpose and implied rhetorical effect of the Gospel on its audience in no uncertain terms near the end of the narrative (19:35; 20:30–31). While the Fourth Gospel explicitly paints the picture of the implied audience as those who will believe and have life in Jesus’s name (19:25; 20:31), the Gospel’s engagement with the audience exceeds these purpose statements. The picture of the ideal audience is on the table from the beginning of the Gospel and strengthened by the rhetorical2 mastery of creating attractive identities who perform the purpose of the Gospel well and with whom the audience is implicitly exhorted to identify. These include the ideal group referred to as “we” (1:14; 21:24) and various characters, including the beloved disciple, who fulfil the aims of the Gospel by believing in Jesus. The audience, therefore, becomes more than spectators of the Fourth Gospel, but essentially participators, and finally performers as John opens up its performative axis to them.
Domeris, Bill. “The Johannine Drama.” Conspectus : The Journal of the South African Theological Seminary 2018, no. Special Edition (April 1, 2018): 3–11.
AbstractThe Johannine Drama (1983) was first published in the Journal of Theology for Southern Africa (42) March 1983:29–35. In December of 1983, I graduated with my PhD from Durham (UK) in John’s Gospel. The article represents my combined interests in Classical Life and Thought augmented by my reading of the Greek plays and John’s Gospel. At the time, I was a young lecturer (33 years of age) teaching at the University of Cape Town. Across the years, the article has often been cited, especially in recent times, including Sherri Brown (2010, Gift upon Gift: Covenant through Word in the Gospel of John), George Parsenios (2010, Rhetoric and Drama in the Johannine Lawsuit Motif), Christopher Skinner (2013, Characters and Characterization in the Gospel of John) and Douglas Estes (2012, The Questions of Jesus in John’s Logic, Rhetoric and Persuasive Discourse). I chose to revise it, since parts of the original article, I believe, needed updating for this collection.
Domeris, W. R. “The Farewell Discourse: An Anthropological Perspective.” Neotestamentica 25, no. 2 (1991): 233–50.
AbstractThe work of Jerome Neyrey (1988) is a brave attempt to apply the Grid/Group model of the anthropologist, Mary Douglas, to the Fourth Gospel. Neyrey detects three stages within the history of the Johannine community, which he then plots on the Grid/Group graph as: (1) strong group/low grid, (2) strong group/rising grid, and (3) weak group/low grid. Sections of the Farewell Discourses are located in (2) and (3). This paper is first of all a critical response to the hypothesis of Neyrey. We demonstrate that the model used by Neyrey does not correspond accurately with Douglas' own writings. This has skewed his analysis of the Johannine community, particularly in its final stage. The paper concludes with an alternative reading which attempts to remain faithful to the actual work of Douglas.
Draper, J. A. “‘If Those to Whom the W/Word of God Came Were Called Gods...’: Logos, Wisdom and Prophecy, and John 10:22-30.” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 71, no. 1 (2015): 1–8.
AbstractThis article provides a critical reflection on Jan van der Watt's theory of the network of the metaphor of the family in John's Gospel, taking the Johannine understanding of the seed as a case study. In his reflections on God's act of creation, Philo uses the language of impregnation and (re)birth of the natural man by his divine seed to produce children of virtue for those who open themselves to divine wisdom. His Middle-Platonic construction is unlikely to have been understood as 'absurd, irrelevant or untrue', which characterises a metaphor in Van der Watt's definition. The discourse on the relationship between seed/sperm and life reflects ancient 'scientific' understanding of the world for Philo and John's Gospel. This article analyses the connections and differences between Philo's conception and the mysticism of John's understanding of rebirth from above as contrasted with 'natural' birth.
Draper, J. A. “Temple, Tabernacle and Mystical Experience in John.” Neotestamentica 31, no. 2 (1997): 263–88.
AbstractThe repositioning of the temple incident in John's Gospel to the beginning of the narrative is an important clue to its central interest. John, like 4Q174, interprets 2 Samuel 7 to mean that the Jerusalem temple never should have been built and that the true (heavenly) temple had yet to be built in the last times by the true seed of David. Until then, God's presence is a tented presence as in the wilderness wanderings. The dimensions of John's community as an introversionist sect seeking direct mystical experience of the divine presence to replace the physical destruction of the Jerusalem temple are explored in terms of this temple theme.
Draper, J. A. “The ’ Theatre of Performance’ and ‘The Living Word’ of Jesus in the Farewell Discourse(s) in John’s Gospel.” Journal of Early Christian History 4, no. 1 (2014): 26–43.
Draper, J. A. “The Closed Text in the Heavenly Telephone: The Role of the Bricoleur in Oral Mediation of Sacred Text in the Case of George Khambule and the Gospel of John.” In Orality, Literacy and Colonialism in Southern Africa, edited by J. A. Draper, 57–89. Leiden: Brill, 2003.
AbstractThe Paraclete in John is examined from the perspective of the sociology of sects and new religious movements. Introversion ist sects emerge in colonial situations, following the failure of revolutionary liberation movements. Strong separatist community provides stable and reliable parameters in cultural crisis and normative breakdown. Its success depends on identity transformation and world view reconstruction, which in turn depends on strong inner-group interaction and boundary maintenance against 'the world'. The Paraclete functions as boundary maintenance against a hostile social environment. Linguistic observations from the Dead Sea Scrolls support this thesis, as does detailed examination of the Farewell Discourses.
Draper, J. A. “What Did Isaiah See? Angelic Theophany in the Tomb in John 20:11-18.” Neotestamentica 36, no. 1–2 (2002): 63–76.
AbstractThis paper argues that there is a narrative inclusio between the promise of a vision of angels to Nathaniel in John 1:51 and the appearance of angels to Mary Magdalene in the tomb at the head and feet of the body of Jesus in 20:11-18. John reads Isa 6 targumically to see the vision of the Lord enthroned on his throne chariot as a prophecy of the resurrected and glorified Jesus in the tomb. The angels cover his head and his feet, hiding the direct vision of his risen glory.
Du Rand, J. A. “‘“Julle sal huil en treur maar die wêreld sal bly wees” – ’n Aforisme in Johannes 16:20.” In Hupomena: Feedbundel opgedra aan JP Louw, edited by J. H. Barkhuizen, H. F. Stander, and G. J. Swart, 54–49. Pretoria: Universiteit van Pretoria, 1992.
Du Rand, J. A. “‘Verstaan julle wat Ek vir julle gedoen het?’ (Joh 13:12): Die voetewassing as Johannese hupodeigma.” In Hupodeigma – ’n Vriend in ons poorte: Feesbundel vir PJ du Plessis, edited by L. Nortje, 61–74. Johannesburg: Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit, 1990.
Du Rand, J. A. “’n Vrouedissipel uit Samaria? Lesergerigte eksegetiese opmerkings oor die vertelde gesprekke in Johannes 4.” In Koninkryk, Gees en Woord, Huldigingsbundel vir L. Floor, edited by J. C. Coetzee, 199–217. Pretoria: NG Kerkboekhandel, 1988.
AbstractAny effort to make a new contribution to such a well-known subject as the Johannine Farewell Discourses has really become an exegetical challenge. Although it has been thoroughly investigated from different viewpoints (cf Painter 1981; Segovia 1985; Schnelle 1989; Du Rand 1990) the full exegetical consequences of a holistic approach (cf Martin 1987) are still to be spelled out. The aim of this contribution is to work in that direction, focussing on some narratological as well as sociological aspects concerning the First Farewell Discourse, John 13:31-14:31, and on the relationship between text and context.
Du Rand, J. A. “A Syntactical and Narratological Reading of John 10 in Coherence with Chapter 9.” In The Shepherd Discourse of John and Its Context, edited by J. Beutler and R. T. Fortna, 94–115. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Du Rand, J. A. “Bringing the Reader into Exegetical Play, Applied to the Gospel of John.” In More than One Way of Reading the Bible, edited by J. A. du Rand, 2:51–142. Johannesburg: University of Johannesburg, 2006.
AbstractThe Johannine Logos once again comes home in Africa In many parts of Africa people are still staggering under the burden of colonialism, civil wars, illnesses, drought, famine, poverty and corrup-tion, to name but a few. On the other hand, one should also take notice of the warmth of its variety of peoples, the family and community values and the promotion of mutual care. Who is Jesus in the midst of all this? Jesus has many faces in Africa, like being the master of initiation, the chief, the ancestor and elder brother, the healer and the liberator from suffering, to name some.
Du Rand, J. A. “Die leser in die Evangelie volgens Johannes.” Fax Theologica 4, no. 2 (1984): 45–63.
AbstractMore than one meritorious contribution has already investigated the relationship between the typical Johannine style and the theological content of the Gospel according to John. Recent analyses of the Johannine style, particularly focusing on the role of variation and repetition (Bauckham 2015:3; Du Rand 1996:62; Van Belle 2009:37; and Van der Watt 2009:351) have by shedding valuable light on the problem, furthering the New Testament science in a creative way. In this contribution the emphasis falls on the powerful role of repetition, variation and the reinvented role of chiasms, possibly from Semitic influence, on the Johannine thought structures. The particular emphasis falls on the theological influence of the relation between format and content. Chiasms are also depicted in Greek literature but are dominant in John because of the strong influence of Judaistic style in his thoughts.
Du Rand, J. A. “Does Ho Ochlos Refer to the ’Am Ha’ares in John 7:49?” Ekklesiastikos Pharos 156, no. 19 (1995): 32–38.
Du Rand, J. A. “Nuwere perspektiewe in die studie van die Christologie van die Evangelie volgens Johannes.” In Die Nuwe-Testamentiese wetenskap vandag, edited by A.B. Du Toit, 78–188. Pretoria: Universiteit van Pretoria, 1980.
AbstractA thorough understanding of Johannine discipleship goes hand in hand with perspectives on the Johannine community as well as the narratological function of the Farewell Discourses. To elaborate on these perspectives compels the exegete to obtain relief information on discipleship from extra-textual data. The distinctive character of a Johannine disciple, from the viewpoint of terminology, is determined by belief, knowledge and love, to name but a few. Within a sociological framework the Johannine community is finding its identity through a view on discipleship, implemented by the 'new' commandment and the Paraclete as manifested in the beloved disciple. The Johannine narrative contributes to this sense of identification by telling the story from a retrospective ideological view of transparency, concentrating on two lines, the Jesus-ministry and the disciple-ministry. The result is identification between reader and discipleship which leads to definite self-definition of discipleship as the appropriation of realised eschatological salvation.
Du Rand, J. A. “Plot and Point of View in the Gospel of John.” In A South African Perspective on the New Testament, edited by J. H. Petzer and P. J. Hartin, 149–69. Leiden: Brill, 1986.
AbstractA functional reading of the fourth Gospel can be compared to listening to a well balanced musical symphony in which, by way of comparison, a rhetorical transaction with theological effects is communicated. After applying Egan's definition of plot, it is found that the reader of John's Gospel experiences the affective meaning in a comprehensible, emotional sequence, because of a particular sense of causality. The power of John's narrative lies in the presentation of relationships. This forces the reader to become affectively involved. In the Johannine model of relationships affective meaning flows from the Father, through the Son and Paraclete to come to fulfilment in the relationships of the disciples.
Du Rand, J. A. “The Characterization of Jesus as Depicted in the Narrative of the Fourth Gospel.” Neotestamentica 19, no. 2 (1985): 18–36.
AbstractThe aim of this article is to emphasize that John's gospel narrative should be read as a coherent witnessing story about the protagonist Jesus. According to the new and useful paradigm, the reader's response criticism, the characterization of Jesus in John's story should be understood from the Johannine point of view and plot. The Johannine Jesus' emotional responses are for example noticeably different from those ascribed to him by the other gospel narratives. One of the questions to be answered is what the reason could be for the protagonist Jesus' 'professional' distance and aloofness in John's story. Whatever the answer, the Johannine Jesus still challenges the modern reader to come to a decisive response.
Du Rand, J. A. “The Creation Motif in the Fourth Gospel: Perspectives on Its Narratological Function within a Judaïstic Background.” In Theology and Christology in the Fourth Gospel, edited by G. Van Belle, J. G. Van der Watt, and P. Maritz, 21–46. Leiden: Brill, 2005.
Du Rand, J. A. “The Johannine ‘Group’ and ‘Grid’: Reading John 13-31-14-31 from Narratological and Sociological Perspectives.” In Miracles and Imagery in Luke and John, edited by J. Verheyden, G. Van Belle, and J. G. Van der Watt, 125–39. Leuven: Peeters, 2008.
Du Rand, J. A. “The Johannine Jesus in Africa?” In Word, Theology and Community in John: Festschrift R Kysar, edited by F. Segovia, A. Culpepper, and J. Painter, 211–28. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress, 2002.
AbstractAlthough it must be admitted that the present position of Johannine studies is characterised by a sense of discovery and by an exciting new set of questions (Rensberger 1988:30), it can still be said that there is general acknowledgement and approval of the fact that the aspect of faith, according to John's own statement in 20:31, constitutes a major theme in his gospel. This also accounts for the farewell discourses (Beutler 1984:9, Culpepper 1983:39). It is therefore of major importance for the understanding of the discourses to trace and decipher the aspect of faith in the gospel as a whole and to try to understand as clearly as possible how this concept is presented by the implied author. It is also my conviction that there is a direct relationship between the Christology of the Fourth Gospel and the aspect of faith within it. It may therefore be necessary to combine the investigation of ??????? in the gospel and farewell discourses with an inquiry into the Christology of John.
Dube, M. W. “Batswaka: Which Traveller Are You (John 1:1–18)?” In The Bible in Africa: Transactions, Trajectories and Trends, 150–62. Leiden: Brill, 2000.
Dube, M. W. “John 4:1–42: The Five Husbands at the Well of Living Waters – The Samaritan Woman and African Woman.” In Talitha Cum! Theologies of African Woman, edited by N. J. Njoroge and M. W. Dube, 40–65. Pietermaritzburg: Cluster, 2001.
AbstractThis discussion of ascribed and naturalized privileges associated with being an insider takes its starting point from the text of Jn 8:44-46. Then it considers naturalized identities in South Africa, identity during the 1st century and in the Fourth Gospel, the discourse of social categories in John, the Holy Spirit as an identity marker, and the implications of categories toward social cohesion in South Africa. It concludes that what we see in John are fixed categories with an imperial intent, and that theology should not hesitate to critique the discourse of power monopoly.-C.R.M. Abstract Number: NTA61-2017-1-0158
Dzurgba, A. “John’s Gospel: A Theological Reflection.” Orita 18, no. 2 (1986): 78–92.
Abstract[It is argued that the model of relationality-response best epitomises the ethical direction of the Scriptures. In examining the ethical teaching of the farewell discourses (Jn 13-17), attention is given to discovering the ethical emerging from the narrative of Jesus' relationship-response to the Father, to his disciples and to the world. The account of the footwashing with which the farewell discourses begin presents a connection to the salvific work of Jesus. By this action Jesus prophesies in a symbolic way that he is to be humiliated in death. The ethical life of Christians remains a response to what Jesus has done on their behalf. What emerges from this examination of the farewell discourses is that love gives rise to the whole ethics of discipleship. United with Jesus the believer is called to lead a specific way of life. It is not an ethics of laws or ends, but an ethics that has a person, Jesus, as its very centre. Love is the cornerstone for this relationship. The call and choice that God has made of believers is one that results in love and in bearing fruit. In the final analysis the response to which the disciples of Jesus of all generations are called is that of a unity of love in imitation of the response that Jesus demonstrated through his relationship with the Father.]
Hassan, Peter. “REVISITING THE JOURNEY STRUCTURE OF THE GOSPEL OF JOHN.” Journal of African Studies and Sustainable Development 2, no. 4 (2019): 81–105.
AbstractTo acknowledge that in writing the gospels, every evangelist has used information at his disposal with a specific theological purpose, implies that pinpointing that purpose is essential for understanding the gospel material. Of cardinal importance in discerning that purpose is knowledge of the design or the arrangement of that material. Both are indispensable tools for relevant textual hermeneutics. It is for this reason that the compositional design of the Fourth Gospel continues to generate a lively discuss. Without outrightly rejecting earlier attempts, proposing “a journey structure” for this gospel might throw up fresh and interesting insights.
Hunt, S. A., D. F. Tolmie, and R. Zimmermann, eds. Character Studies in the Fourth Gospel. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013.
AbstractThe revised version of a doctoral dissertation supervised by C. Saayman and accepted by the University of the Free State in South Africa in 2000, this study analyzes John 9 from a speech act perspective to determine whether or not such an analysis leads to acceptable and valid interpretative results. After a twelve-page introduction and a 47-page discussion of methodology, it provides a contextual survey of John 9: appropriateness conditions; the cooperative principle, and interpersonal and textual rhetorics; three presumptions (linguistic, communicative, literalness); general mutual contextual beliefs presumed in John 9; Johannine symbolism; and the motif of suffering.Then after noting the chiastic structure of the seven dialogues in John 9, it offers a speech act reading of the text: A--Jesus and the disciples (Jn 9:1-7); B--the blind man and the neighbors (9:8-12); C--the blind man and the Pharisees (9:13-17); D--the Jews and the blind man's parents (9:18-23); C'--the Jews and the blind man (9:24-34); B'--Jesus and the blind man (9:35-38); A'--Jesus and the Pharisees (9:38-41). Six appendixes are included. Ito, professor at Ritsumeikan University in Kyoto City, Japan, concludes that a speech act approach can elicit a fresh appreciation of biblical texts such as John 9 and contribute to a better understanding thereof. Abstract Number: NTA60-2016-1
Joubert, J. “Johannine Metaphors/Symbols Linked to the Paraclete-Spirit and Its Theological Implications.” Acta Theologica 27, no. 1 (2007): 83–104.
Kinoti, H. W. “John 1:1–18: An African Perspective.” In Return to Babel: Global Perspectives on the Bible, edited by J. R. Levison and P. Pope-Levison, 145–50. Louisville, KY: Westminister John Knox, 1999.
AbstractJohn views the death and resurrection of Jesus as an inseparable unity (cf 10:17-18). In this article it is then argued that the resurrection of Jesus in John could be understood as a Johannine ?????? (cf 2:18-22), as well as the culminating healing act in John. It also serves as the most important ?????? against which the other ?????? and the rest of the Gospel should be understood. In the resurrection as the culminating healing act, John's Jesus restores his own brokenness (and death) and proves that He is the source of life (cf 1:4; 11:25), also by bringing healing and restoration to the spiritually blind (cf 9:40-41; 12:40). This article is a result of the writer's PhD thesis2.
Kok, J. “The Chaos of the Cross as Fractal of Life: The Birth of the Post Resurrection, Missional Dimension in John.” Neotestamentica 45, no. 1 (2011): 130–45.
AbstractIn this article the author argues from a post foundationalist point of view in favour of an interdisciplinary research methodology that could contribute to new innovative possibilities for doing research. In his article he brings chaos theory in discussion with NT studies with specific reference to John's view of the cross. He then goes on to illustrate how John's resurrection and appearance narratives can serve as an empowering metaphor for existential living that brings not only chaos theory and NT studies, but also missiology in a creative interdisciplinary dialogue with one another.
Kok, J. “The Healing of the Blind Man in John.” Journal of Early Christian History 2, no. 2 (2012): 36–62.
AbstractIt is argued in this article that the Johannine portrayal of Jesus and his relationship to the Johannine communities is reliable and requires adherence. In this manner the orthodoxy and other-worldliness of the church is manifested.
Magagula, S. J. “John 8:17: The Life of Costly Discipleship.” Ministry 4, no. 3 (1964): 125.
Manus, C. U. “John 6:1–15 and Its Synoptic Parallels: An African Approach Toward the Solution of a Johannine Critical Problem.” Journal of the Interdenominational Theological Centre 19, no. 1–2 (1992): 47–71.
Manus, C. U. “Reconstructing Christology for Africa of the 21st Century: A Re-Reading of Mark 11:15-19 and Parallels: Matt. 21:12-17; Lk. 19:45-48; John 2:13-22.” African Journal of Biblical Studies 18, no. 2 (2002): 1–21.
AbstractThe article focuses on what the theological drama found in Jn 4:7-42 indicates about the role of women in leadership and nation building in the context of the developing countries of Africa today. It examines the context of the pericope, provides an exposition of the text, offers observations on where Johannine theology impinges on contemporary Africa, and proposes a relevant socio-theological evaluation of the role of women.--C.R.M. Abstract Number: NTA34-1990-1-211
Manus, C. U. “The Samaritan Woman (Jn 4:7ff.): Reflections on Female Leadership and Its Implications towards Nation Building in Modern Africa.” Edited by C. U. Manus. African Journal of Biblical Studies 2, no. 1–2 (1987): 52–63.
AbstractThis article argues that the references to time in the asides and narrative formulas in the Gospel of John are used by the evangelist to anchor his theological arguments rather than to provide a chronological account of Jesus' ministry. Within the Gospel there are active tensions between the present time and eternity, pre-Easter events and post-Easter reflection, narrative time and chronological sequencing. Since the seventeenth century, questions have been raised on the nature of the Gospel of John due to the references to time, affecting the reading thereof as a history and a unit. Considerations on the study of style in John 17 are used to exemplify the gospel's theological nature and coherent unity.
Matand Bulembat, J. B. “Head-Waiter and Bridegroom of the Wedding at Cana: Structure and Meaning of John 2.1-12.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 30, no. 1 (2007): 55–73.
Ngele, Omaka K., Emmanuel U. Onwuanaku, and Kingsley I. Uwaegbute. “Exegetical Survey of John 13:1-17: Implication of Jesus ’ Servant Leadership Model for the Church and Nigerian Society.” Nsukka Journal of Religious and Cultural Studies 4, no. 1 (2011): 64–86.
AbstractLeadership in Nigeria across ecclesiastical and societal strata had over the years proved to be a game of the hawks and kittens through radical and arbitrary expression of power and authority. All who had played host to the power equation among the leadership in Nigeria had exhibited leadership mentality that had been anchored on that of tribalism, feudalism, dictatorship, and nepotism. These indices invariably had been obvious in the church leadership wherein the leadership had lord it over God’s heritage. This abnormality in the nation leadership has affected negatively the psyche of average Nigerians. Consequently the National as well as international image of the Nigeria had been dragged to the mud. This paper in a vivid lucidity examined through critical biblical exegesis, Jesus’ model of exemplary as well as servant leadership from John Gospel 13:1-17; unraveling its laudable lessons for the church and Nigerian society. Keywords: key words, exegesis, Jesus’ Servanthood, Jesus’ leadership model
Ngewa, S. M. “John.” In Africa Bible Commentary, edited by T. Adeyemo, 1251–1296. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2006.
AbstractThe meaning of 'Lamb of God' as one of the titles used for Jesus in the Gospel of John is important to understanding the Johannine Jesus. This study evaluates existing interpretations of amnos in the light of literary approaches. The depiction of amnos in ancient Christian art sheds light on the meaning of amnos and the way in which the ancient Christian church understood it.
Nortje-Meyer, L. “The ‘Mother of Jesus’ as Analytical Category in John’s Gospel.” Neotestamentica 43, no. 1 (2009): 123–43.
AbstractBy relating male and female characters in John, new dimensions are added to gender as an important aspect of characterization. Gender is a social construct, and as related to a literary character it is established by the roles attributed to a character within the narrative and by the context from which it is drawn. Besides that, gender is constructed by the relation of a character to other characters, male and female of the same text and of other texts. My intention with this article is to use the Johannine dualistic principle to pair "the mother of Jesus" and the "father of Jesus" and to indicate the consequences for other character pairings in John.
Nwaigbo, F. “Church in Africa and Interreligious Dialogue in the Third Millennium: Jesus and the Samaritan Woman as a Paradigm.” Third Millennium 9, no. 4 (2006): 38–57.
AbstractAfter suggesting that the narrative of Jesus and the Samaritan woman in Jn 4:1-42 provides a nonreductive framework for dialogue between the church and traditional African religions and setting out theological norms for interreligious dialogue today, the article explores the ways in which Jn 4:1-42 serves as a paradigm for interreligious dialogue. It concludes that dialogue is one of the realities of faith and that the Fourth Evangelist presents Jesus as a model of someone deeply involved in dialogue in the course of his mission.--C.R.M. Abstract Number: NTA51-2007-2-1056
Nwigure, N. S., S. O. Abogunrin, and J. O. Akao. “Johannine Christology: A Critical Analysis.” In Christology in African Context, 195–203. Ibadan: Nigerian Association of Biblical Studies, 2003.
AbstractThis article reads the account of the wedding at Cana in Jn 2:1-12 from the perspective of conflict resolution and as an inspiration to women in Africa in general and to Rwandan women in particular. It seeks to discover the strategies behind the characterization of Jesus' mother in solving a crisis and how her strategy may be utilized by women to prevent crises in their communities or to resolve crises when they threaten to get out of hand.--C.R.M. Abstract Number: NTA58-2014-2-0967
Nyirimana-Mukansengimana, Rose, and Jonathan A. Draper. “The Role of Women in Creating Safe Space for ’Strangers’ : Reading of Joshua 2:1-21 and John 18:15-17 from the Context of Rwandan Conflict.” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa 152 (2015): 96–113.
AbstractThe paper explores the potential of the narrative of Rahab in Josh 2:1-21 and that of the woman gatekeeper in Jn 18:15-17 to provide a narrative world to explore the creation of "safe space" for those in situations of violent confrontation to dialogue with each other. It treats Rwandan society and social groups; Rahab's acts of loving kindness; the woman gatekeeper in Jn 18:15-18 giving in to pressure; and the gatekeeper's and Rahab's acts in the Rwandan context.--C.R.M. Abstract Number: NTA60-2016-1-0186
Obielosi, D. C. Servant of God in John. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2008.
Okure, T. “‘AFES AYTHN’ (Jn 12:7): The Challenge of the Anointing at Bethany (Jn 12:1–8 and Parallels) for the Contemporary Church.” In Universalisme et Mission Dans La Bible, edited by S. Sempore, 137–46. Nairobi: Katholische Jungschar Oesterreiches et BICAM, 1993.
AbstractThe article employs a narrative and intertextual method to identify what Jesus of Nazareth in Galilee and the Samaritan woman share in common from their own contexts with those they would likely meet in a "homecoming" visit to Africa. Jesus' encounter with the Samaritan woman surfaced their shared experiences of prejudice, racism, and sexism flowing from the social norms of their societies. Jesus reaches beyond these prejudices, however, leading the woman, the Samaritans, and his own disciples to do the same. Unfortunately, contemporary discourse on the option for the poor has paid little attention to the role of inherited and ingrained prejudices in regard to Africans.--C.R.M. Abstract Number: NTA54-2010-1-278
Okure, T. “John.” In The International Bible Commentary, edited by W. R. Farmer, 1438–1501. Collegeville, PA: Liturgical Press, 1998.
Oliver, Willem H., and Andries G. Van Aarde. “The Community of Faith as Dwelling-Place of the Father: Bασιλεία Τοϋ Θεοϋ as ‘Household of God’ in the Johannine Farewell Discourse(s).” Neotestamentica 25, no. 2 (1991): 379–400.
AbstractJesus' viewpoints did not always conform to the prevailing ideas of the day. Instead, he had his own ideas regarding the kingdom of God, which were far from the prevailing idea of 'king' and 'subjects'. In this paper it is argued that Jesus introduced a specific relationship between God and the believers, namely that of 'father' and 'children', derived from the analogy of his own relationship with God. Should the above-mentioned statement be true, then it is possible that Jesus constituted the ???????? ??? ????, not in terms of a king and his subjects, but in terms of a patron, the father — and clients, the children. Although the phrase ???????? ??? ???? does not occur in the Johannine farewell discourse(s), implicit references to it indicate that it can be interpreted as 'dwelling-place of the Father', and thus as 'household of God'.
Omotoye, R. “Jesus Christ and the Adulterous Woman: A Case for Embracing HIV/AIDS Patients in Nigeria.” In Biblical View of Sex and Sexuality from Afrian Perspective, edited by S. O. Abogunrin and J. O. Akao, 300–308. Ibadan: Nigerian Association of Biblical Studies, 2006.
AbstractEllipse creation events in the Gospel story according to JohnThe narrative of the Fourth Gospel can be read from different viewpoints. From the perspective of the creation motif the unfolding of the story can be compared to an ellipse, emphasising two focal creation moments: the incarnation of the Logos (1:1-18) and the bestowment of the Spirit onto the disciples (20:21-23). These two creation moments are part of a literary comparison between creation and "new creation".
Ras, J. M. J. “Jesus, Moral Regeneration and Crime in the Gospel of John.” Inkanyiso 2, no. 2 (2010): 115–21.
Abstract[Jesus' use of the first person plural in John 3:11 is rarely given more than passing comment. The common explanation that a group outside of the narrative speaks through Jesus ignores the literary context of the passage, which indicates a number of possible figures who could be included in Jesus' use of the first person plural. These possibilities consist of the Father, John the Baptist, Jesus' disciples, and the use of the "we" of majesty. While the Spirit has rarely been mentioned as a possible referent, the Spirit's inclusion in Jesus' "we" is more likely. Based on the similar content and manner of speaking and testifying shared by Jesus and the Spirit and the proximity of Jesus' comments about the Spirit, the Spirit is the most plausible referent for inclusion in Jesus' "we".]
Roux, Elritia le. “’n Johannese perspektief op die huwelik, geslagsrolle en seksualiteit in ’n postmoderne konteks.” Verbum et Ecclesia | Skrif en Kerk 31, no. 1 (March 29, 2010): 8.
AbstractThe hypothesis offered in this study is that the Johannine texts are authoritative, canononical documents with the inherent potential that is applicable to the practical lives of the faithful. Since Biblical texts are the product of the patriarchal culture within which they originated, a hermeneutic of suspicion becomes essential. In the interaction between the Biblical text and the contemporary context, a creative space is being created which requires a humble attitude from the exegetes to acknowledge the temporary nature of their findings. We need to look past the patriarchal nature and language towards a more inclusive paradigm. The Bible does not bind us to a rigid way of living, but liberates us for the appreciation of the healing power of God’s grace in our context. We need to move past stereotypes and to see others through the eyes of Christ. Jesus took a radical stance against the culture of his day. From the beginning of his public ministry, we find in him the tension between his prophetic role and the dominant culture of day. This tension leads to Jesus becoming a marginalised Jew, who stands outside the Jewish inner circle. He does not fit into the conventional social roles of his day. Jesus rather associates himself with the marginalised. This illustrates Jesus’ radical commitment to God and his passionate commitment to the truth of the Gospel. --- Abstract translated into Sipedi ---Tša lenyalo, seabe sa bong bja motho le tša bong mo maemong a phosmodene go ya ka JohaneSenaganwaKakanyo ye e fiwago pampiring ye ke go re ditemana tša puku ya Johane ke dingwalo tše di nago le maatla, di ka gare ga Bibele yeo e sa šomago ka go ama maphelo a batho thwii, gape di na le khuetšo ye kgolo maphelong a badumedi. Ka ge Bibele e tswalwa ke setšo sa phatriakhi(go ba monna ke seelo mafapheng ka moka a bophelo), go sekaseka Bibele motho a na le maseme go ba bohlokwa mo. Kamanong ya Bibele le maemo ao babadi ba ikhwetšago ba le go ona, go hlolega sekgoba sa go ikakanyetša seo se nyakago gore basekaseki ba Bibele ba ikokobetše ka go amogela gore dikutollo tša bona ke tša lebakanyana fela. Re swanela go tloša mahlo go sebopego sa phatriakhi gomme re šetše tsela ya go akaretša bohle ditshekatshekong tša rena. Bibele ga e re kgokolele go tsela e tee ya go se šišinyege ya bophelo, eupša e a re lokolla gore re bone maatla a pholo ya go tla ka mogau wa Modimo mo maphelong a rena. Re hloka go tlogela go bona bophelo ka mahlo a ditlwaedi tša ka mehla gomme re bone batho ka fao Kriste a ba bonago ka gona. Jesu o ile a tšea maemo a e sego a tlwaelo, a thata, kgahlanong le ditlwaedi tša setšo sa gabo. Go tloga mathomong a mošomo wa gagwe wa go lokolla batho, re bona mo go Yena ngangego ya go kgala(profeta) le setšo se se bego se rena nakong ya bophelo bja Gagwe. Ngangego ye e dira gore Jesu e be Mojuta yo a hlokolwago, a kgaphelwago ka ntle ga sedikadikwe sa Bajuta ba paale. Ga a swanetšane le go hlankela setšhaba fao go bego go tlwaelegile nakong ya Gagwe. Jesu o ikgethela go tswalana le bao ba hlokolwago setšhabeng. Se se laetša boikgafo bja Gagwe bjo bo tibilego go Modimo le go ikgafa ka phegelelo ye kgolo go therešo ya Ebangedi.--- End of translation ---
Rwehumbiza, R. K. P. “Presence and Activity of the Holy Spirit in Johannine Community.” In Johannine Communities, edited by P. Arowele Amewowo, P. Arowele, and B. Balembo, 202–41. Kinshasa: Catholic Faculty of Kinshasa, 1991.
AbstractFirstly the views of some scholars on the flow of the argument in John 3:12-14 is examined. Then an own reading is presented in which it is argued that in verse 12 the Jesus of John raises the possibility of talking about the mysteries that heaven contains. This expectation is reinforced in verse 13 where it is claimed that Jesus is in the unique position to reveal these mysteries as He is the only person who had made the qualifying journey to the regions concerned. Jesus does not fulfil this expectation, though, but turns to talking about the cross of the Son of Man. In this way apprehension is initially caused in the group represented by Nicodemus, who could not even (grasp and) believe the earthly doctrine of birth from above, after which they are reassured by the fact that Jesus does not intend at all to talk about faraway and mysterious matters but only about the Gospel message itself.
Schaeffler, E. “Jesus’ Non-Violence at His Arrest: The Synoptics and John’s Gospel Compared.” Acta Patristica et Byzantina 17 (2006): 312–26.
AbstractThe semeia in the Gospel of John are analysed, first in relation to other similar miracle narratives, especially in the synoptic gospels, and secondly in perspective of the broader narrative of John's Gospel. Clear links with some of the synoptic miracle narratives are discussed, questioning the 'semeia source' theory. This discussion is followed by a consideration of John's own interpretation of the miracles, exploring the interwovenness of the miracle stories with the theology of John, especially regarding the relation between the Father and the Son, the humanness of Jesus, the passion of Jesus and faith. (English)
Seed, Caroline Grace. “Reception of the Gospel of John among the Isawa of Northern Nigeria and the Qiang of Western China, 1913–35.” International Bulletin of Mission Research 44, no. 3 (July 1, 2020): 257–66.
AbstractThis article examines the early mission history of the reception of the Gospel of John among two very different people groups, the Isawa of northern Nigeria and the Qiang of western China. It considers the similarities in their pre-Christian religion in terms of monotheism, messianic expectation, and self-understanding as children of Israel in order to theorize theological reasons for the positive reception of John’s Gospel. It concludes that John’s Gospel is the ideal place to start reading with monotheistic groups.
Sindima, H. J. “Moyo: Fullness of Life - A Hermeneutic of the Logos in John’s Prologue.” African Christian Studies 6, no. 4 (1990): 50–62.
AbstractTheological investigation of the ????????[witness] lexeme in John 1–4 contributes significantly towards an understanding of an emerging, missional ecclesiology. This hypothesis is precipitated by the accelerated pace of change that our society is currently experiencing. The technological developments of the past 50 years have created a society that is dependent on this new technology, leading to the developing of a new cultural paradigm, in which the church is ill at home. The question of an emerging, missional ecclesiology is therefore building on the need for theological research from the perspective of this developing new paradigm. It was proposed that a hermeneutic approach should be taken. It was also argued that ecclesiology serves as the integration point for reflection and practical missional ministry. As such, the church as object of investigation is the ultimate technological praxis, as the faith community serves as the show-case of God’s presence in this world.
Stander, Hendrik F. “Repliek op Van der Watt se artikel oor ‘Intertekstualiteit en oorinterpretasie: Verwysings na Genesis 28:12 in Johannes 1:51?’.” In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi 51, no. 1 (2017): 1–5.
AbstractThe two-fold aim of this paper is (i) to determine whether the description of Jesus as the gardener is symbolic; and (ii) to show that the atonement in the Fourth Gospel is seen in terms of renewal and transformation. Starting with some of Origen's comments, it is then argued that re-creation is a consistent theme of John. This is borne out by a brief look at some early interpretations of John's theology, with special reference to Athanasius, after which consideration is given to the meaning of Jesus as the gardener, and the legitimacy of new interpretations.
Suggit, J. The Sign of Life: Studies in the Fourth Gospel and the Liturgy of the Church. Cape Town: Galvin & Soles, 1993.
Abstract[Chapters 13-17 form an Introduction to the Passion Narrative. To read them from the context of the eucharistie worship of the church helps later disciples see the liturgy as always involving a challenge to faithfulness and love, as contrasted with the action of Judas. The High-Priestly prayer of chapter 17 corresponds to the liturgical setting of chapter 13, and the allusions to baptism and eucharist confirm the disciples' understanding of their own identity, resulting from their unity with Christ.]
Thomaskutty, Johnson. “‘Humanhood’ in the Gospel of John.” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 77, no. 4 (August 5, 2021).
AbstractThis article is an attempt to explore the theme of ‘humanhood’ in the Fourth Gospel. The most important questions to be posed at the outset are the following: who is the model human presented in the gospel as per the Johannine community standards? How can a person acquire humanhood status according to the Johannine community? The divine and human interaction in the life and ministry of Jesus dynamically introduces the life ethics and mission aspects of the Johannine community. According to the Johannine community standards, people can achieve ‘humanhood’ status exclusively in relation to Jesus. As the community of John emphasises humanhood in relation to Jesus, a person can overcome all sorts of human-made boundaries, including the sexual, racial and class-oriented boundaries through the mediation of Jesus. This further means that the all-inclusive mission of Jesus foregrounds a new criterion for ‘humanhood’ in the Johannine community context. The article concludes by stating that the Johannine understanding of humanhood can be considered as a paradigm in the contemporary global scenario.
Contribution: This article contributes to the reader a wider hermeneutical framework and a new way forward in interpreting the gospel according to John by taking into consideration the humanhood aspects. As a theological and contextual interpretation of the Fourth Gospel, the article fits well within the scope of HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies.
Tolmie, D. F. “A Discourse Analysis of John 17:1-26.” Neotestamentica 27, no. 2 (1993): 403–18.
AbstractThe aim of this essay is to present an analysis of the surface structure of John 17:1-26 by means of a discourse analysis, a methodological approach that comprises an analysis of the semantic content of language segments into its constituent units in order to restate the argument in terms of its taxonomic hierarchy. Following an overview of various proposals regarding the structure of John 17:1-26, a discourse analysis of this chapter is presented. It is divided into cola; structure markers are indicated; the semantic relations are discussed and the flow of the argument is outlined.
Tolmie, D. F. “A Discourse in the Analysis of John 15:1-17.” Ekklesiastikos Pharos 75, no. 1 (1993): 54–79.
Tolmie, D. F. “Jesus, Judas and a Morsel: Interpreting a Gesture in John 13:21-30.” In Miracles and Imagery in Luke and John: Festschrift Ulrich Busse, edited by J. Verheyden, G. van Belle, and J. G. van der Watt, 105–24. Leuven: Peeters, 2008.
AbstractJohn 21:24-25: A case of failed attestation In this article the tendency to interpret John 21:24-25 narratologically as a highly sophisticated and effective technique is disputed. Instead it is argued that the Beloved Disciple is identified in these verses as the real author of the Gospel and that the dominating function in John 21 :24-25 is the testimonial function (also known as the function of attestation). It is also argued that the intended effect of this junction is undermined by the awkward manner in which it is fulfilled.
Tolmie, D. F. “The (Not So) Good Shepherd: The Use of Shepherd Imagery in the Characterisation of Peter in the Fourth Gospel.” In Imagery in the Gospel of John: Terms, Forms, Themes and Theology of Figurative Language, 353–67. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006.
AbstractThis paper is presented from a narratological perspective and especially from a semio-structuralistic approach to narrative texts. For quite a long time 'point of view' was part of the traditional way of analysing narrative texts, but Genette indicated the inadequacy of this concept and substituted 'focalisation' for 'point of view'. Accordingly, the function of focalisation in John 13-17 is analysed by using the theoretical framework developed by Rimmon-Kenan, who largely follows Genette. Following this theoretical framework, the type of focalisation as well as the facets of focalisation in John 13-17 are analysed with the purpose of describing the function of focalisation.
Tolmie, D. F. Farewell and Discipleship: John 13:1-19:26 in Narratological Perspective. Leiden: Brill, 1995.
Tshehla, S. T. “Colenso, John 1:1-18 and the Politics of Insider- and Outsider-Translating.” In The Eye of the Storm: Bishop John William Colenso and the Crisis of Biblical Interpretation, edited by J. A. Draper, 29–41. London: Clark, 2003.
AbstractThe subject and the scope of this study are the role(s) of the Spirit-Paraclete in John 16:4b-15. The methodology applied is socio-rhetorical criticism as developed by Vernon K. Robbins. The fourth Gospel is called the `spiritual Gospel.' Its pneumatic connotations are not only related to its presentation of Christ but also to its frequent references to the Spirit and its cognates. Jesus' Spirit-Paraclete teaching in his Farewell Discourse is a prominent example of this. Its pneumatological content is, however, problematic. This is demonstrated by the various attempts of Johannine scholars. In addition, methodologies, goals and the scope of these studies vary. It was observed that if scholars suggest a role for the Spirit-Paraclete, they usually use `either-or' language, pointing out one role while excluding other possible roles from their conclusions or merely list explicitly mentioned functions of the Spirit-Paraclete. This study is a response to this present situation. It deals with the last two Spirit-Paraclete sayings of Jesus in his farewell address to determine the role(s) of the Spirit-Paraclete, applying the comprehensive reading model which has not been applied to this text before. The hypothesis was that if a more comprehensive methodology is applied to the narrative, a more comprehensive understanding of the text would be gained. We applied multidisciplinary socio-rhetorical criticism which takes into account narrative-rhetorical, intertextual, social-cultural, ideological and sacred aspects of the text while not neglecting contexts in which the story took place, was recorded and is interpreted. Findings were that the roles of the Spirit-Paraclete go beyond mere theological and spiritual significance to touch sociological and psychological aspects of human experience. Thus, the roles of the Spirit-Paraclete are multidimensional. These roles are also integrated with each other. Together they support and point to one major role of the Spirit-Paraclete, which does not, however, downplay his other roles. The central role of the Spirit-Paraclete in John 16:4b-15 is to be the divine presence who forms a performing community of the disciples called the people of the Spirit.
Umorem, A. Being Born Again: An Interpretation of Jn. 3:3, in Relation to Christian Religious Experiences. Lagos: Catholic Theological Association of Nigeria, 1993.
AbstractDie pendulum in hedendaagse hermeneutiek, soos in die moderne literatuurwetenskap, het vanaf die outeur geswaai na die teks en vanaf die teks na die leser. Dit het egter nie by laasgenoemde punt absoluut tot stilstand gekom nie. Die pendulum beweeg teenswoordig binne die totale spektrum outeur-teks-leser, terwyl laasgenoemde baie aandag kry in 'n benadering wat soms bekend staan as leser-responskritiek of resepsie-estetika en ander kere "speechact"-teorie.
Van Aarde, Andries G. “Rudolf Bultmann: Sy mees invloedryke bydrae in die 20ste eeu: ‘Urchristentum’, ‘Jesus’, ‘Johannes’-kommentaar?” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 67, no. 3 (November 4, 2011): 1–7.
AbstractRudolf Bultmann: His most influential contribution in the 20th century: ‘Urchristentum’, ‘Jesus’, ‘Commentary on John’s gospel’? This article pays tribute to Rudolf Bultmann as a scholar of faith who fulfilled the most influential role in the interpretation of Jesus and the New Testament during the twentieth century. In the article Bultmann’s leading publications are discussed against the background of the question of which one has been the most significant. Three important publications are identified, namely his book on the socio-cultural environment of the earliest followers of Jesus in first-century Semitic-Hellenistic world, his book on the historical Jesus, and his commentary on the Gospel of John. Various criteria are applied to value the significance of these three publications. They are Bultmann’s understanding of what the scientific nature of the theological discourse principally would entail; how modern-day believers could adhere to an ancient mythological discourse; the way in which today a historical discourse could existentially been engaged with and why Jesus of Nazareth would be regarded as theologically significant. Both the depth of Bultmann’s understanding of the substance of the theological discourse found in John’s gospel and the quality of Bultmann’s historical-critical analysis of John’s gospel lead to the finding that this commentary should be considered to be not only the most significant for the twentieth century but beyond that time even into the current phase of biblical and theological interpretation.
Van Aarde, Andries G., and R. Ingram. “Van Plato tot Augustinus: Die vroeë Wirkungsgeschichte van die Logos-motief in Johannes.” Ekklesiastikos Pharos 87 (2005): 235–58.
AbstractVernon Robbins in his Tapestry of early Christian discourse and in Exploring the texture of texts has argued that socio-rhetorical analysis is an interpretation of the interplay between various arenas of texture. Such an analysis makes use of data from various fields: linguistic (inner texture), literary comparative (intertexture), social and historical (social and cultural texture) and the ideology of the text (ideological texture). As a general statement of the method this is adequate, but it has to be recognised that 'data' is not a static entity with an objective existence. The reader's understanding of the interplay of the various textures and the reader's imaginative construction of the text's rhetorical situation can radically alter the way the 'data' for such a sociorhetorical analysis is conceptualised, and dramatically changes the inferences made from the text. This is illustrated with reference to the Gospel of John. The language of the imperial cult pervades the text and its projection of the image of Jesus, once one re-imagines the connections of the various textures as well as the networks of significations surrounding the text.
Van den Heever, G. “Theological Metaphorics and the Metaphors of John’s Gospel.” Neotestamentica 26, no. 1 (1992): 89–100.
AbstractMetaphors cannot be studied in abstracto. The use of metaphors is part of the communication process of John's Gospel. Therefore this study starts with a consideration of the Gospel as a communicative act. This means that the author(s) employ(s) various means to alter the listeners'/readers' world view. Perhaps the most important way of achieving this is through the use of metaphors. Metaphors are created by way of unexpected predication through a deliberate category mistake. In this way the possibility is opened to innovative perception (seeing what was not there to see before) as well as to a redescription of reality. By relating the metaphors used in John's Gospel (e g true light, good shepherd, true vine, etc) to their possible communication situation, one can gain insight into the role metaphors play in identifying the Jesus of John.
Van der Merwe, Dirk G. “"Ωρα, a Possible Theological Setting for Understanding Johannine Eschatology.” Acta Patristica et Byzantina 13 (2002): 253–85.
AbstractIn this paper an attempt is made to show how the noun ??? is frequently used in a theological sense in the Fourth Gospel to constitute the setting in which Johannine eschatology ought to be interpreted and to be understood. The semantic usage of ??? paradigmatically investigated in order to determine its theological profile. It became clear that ??? not only refers repeatedly to the crucifixion and exaltation of Jesus, but also indicates the eschatological time which is a present reality. "??? designates, in particular, a significant moment (the revelation and inauguration of a new eschatological dispensation), event (Jesus' crucifixion as the constitution of the eschatological dispensation) and dispensation (where salvation or condemnation, a new form of worship and discipleship are the order of the day). These three distinct semantic usages of ??? can be distinguished from each other, but cannot be separated, as they jointly constitute the setting in which the Johannine eschatology ought to be interpreted and ought to be understood.
Van der Merwe, Dirk G. “A Historical Survey and Critical Evaluation Concerning Discipleship in the Fourth Gospel.” Verbum et Ecclesia | Skrif En Kerk 17, no. 2 (April 21, 1996): 427–42.
AbstractA historical survey and critical evaluation concerning discipleship in the Fourth Gospel The historical survey about discipleship in the Fourth Gospel indicates that the literature of the second half of this century was sketchy about this theme. Up till 1972 a thematic-theological approach highlighted some characteristics of discipleship as they appeared in all four gospels. The study of Jimenez (1972) was the first substantial approach to research about discipleship in the Fourth Gospel and caused a paradigm shift to restrict his study to only the Fourth Gospel. During the 80's the interest about this theme increased, due to Rudolph Bultmann. After Bultmann more attention was paid to the situation and circumstances of the audience which contribute to a greater interest on discipleship and ecclesiology in the Fourth Gospel. Although no constant current influence on discipleship has been observed, most scholars are unanimous that the focal point of discipleship lies in the "Last Discourse".
Van der Merwe, Dirk G. “Conceptualising Holiness in the Gospel of John (Part 2) The En Route to and Character of Holiness.” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 73, no. 3 (2017): 1–11.
AbstractThis article investigates the code of holiness as well as the objectives of holiness in the Gospel of John. The en route to holiness will be dealt with in a following article, 'Conceptualizing holiness in the Gospel of John: the en route to holiness and the character of holiness (Part 2)'. In the Gospel of John, the holiness of the trinity constitutes the theological environment for the code of holiness and forms the basis for the exhortation to holiness. The code of holiness is described in the light of the interaction of three levels of relationships: the unity between Father and the Son as the example of holiness, the unity between Jesus and the disciples as the basis for holiness and the unity among the disciples as the inducting objective for holiness. For the Fourth Evangelist, the objective of holiness is fourfold: The first objective is to constitute a unity among the followers of Jesus (17:20-23), although it is not explicitly defined in this context. The second objective refers to the preparation of Jesus' disciples to continue Jesus' mission. The third objective for holiness is that the world (? ??????) may believe (???????) and may know (???????) that God has sent his Son (??? ?? ?? ??????????) (17:20-23). The fourth and the ultimate objective is the glorification of God (17:4).
Van der Merwe, Dirk G. “Early Christian Spirituality of ‘Seeing the Divine’ in 1 John.” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 71, no. 1 (August 21, 2015): 11.
AbstractApophatic theology and cataphatic theology both occur in the corpus Johanneum to describe the character of God. Apophatically the Gospel of John and the first epistle of John state that ‘nobody has ever seen God’. Cataphatically, Jesus teaches in the Gospel that, ‘Whoever has seen me has seen the Father’, and in 1 John we read that after the Parousia has taken place ‘we know that when he appears we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is’. This article focuses on the cataphatic phrase ‘we shall see him as he is’ (1 Jn 3:2). This investigation responds to the variety of interpretations of this particular phrase, as well as to the interest in the spirituality that it could have evoked amongst the readers of this epistle. In order to gain clarity on the ‘spirituality of “seeing him” in the first epistle of John’, this research focuses on the mechanisms used by the elder in the text to create spiritualities in the readers, such as the composition of images in the imagination of these early Christians, the dynamic interactions between the reader and the text, as well as the dialectic of pretension and retention in the reading of a text.
Van der Merwe, Dirk G. “Imitatio Christi in the Fourth Gospel.” Verbum et Ecclesia | Skrif En Kerk 22, no. 1 (2001): 131–48.
AbstractThis article attempts to point out that John 17:18 (????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????) does not refer to the historical sending of the disciples by Jesus, but rather the official appointment of the disciples as his agents to continue his divine mission in the world. The historical sending of the disciples will take place at a later stage, in 20:21 (????? ?????????? ?? ? ????? ???? ????? ????), after Jesus' resurrection. In order to prove this hypothesis the following aspects are considered, namely: The two complementary themes (Jesus' approaching departure and discipleship) in the Last Discourses, also mentioned in Ch 17, point to the continuation of Jesus' mission and converge in 17:17-19; the 'agency' concept in the Fourth Gospel constitutes the theological context in which the continuation of Jesus' mission is to be understood; a semanticlinguistic account and the theological understanding and interpretation of 17:17-19 approves the legitimacy of the abovementioned hypothesis. Finally, a comparison of 17:17-19 with 20:21 also proves that 17:17-19 refers to Jesus' appointment of his disciples to be his agents in order to continue his mission, while 20:21 refers to the historical sending of the disciples by Jesus.
Van der Merwe, Dirk G. “John 17: Jesus Assigns His Mission to His Disciples.” Verbum et Ecclesia | Skrif En Kerk 19, no. 1 (1998): 115–27.
AbstractThis paper attempts to prove that the character of the unity motif in John 17 : 20-23 is articulated on three levels through various motifs. By using kaqw,"-clauses the Fourth Evangelist successfully proves how the unity relationship between the Father and Jesus has been used as an example according to which the unity relationship between Jesus' disciples is to be constructed. This relationship in turn is based on the disciples' relationship with Jesus. The unity between the disciples, which is the main objective here (indicated by i|na-clauses), has been conveyed in principle in these verses, while the constitution and practicability of this unity for Jesus' disciples are explicated in Ch 15. After exploring the relationship between the Father and Jesus in Ch 17, the aspects that constitute the relationship between Jesus and his disciples are examined in Ch 15 and prove to correlate with the Christology in Ch 17. These unity relationships are demonstrated in the following phrases : o| me|nwn e|n e|moi;, menei'te e|n th| a|ga|ph| mou, ta;" e|ntola|" mou thrh|shte, and fe|rei karpo;n polu|n.
Van der Merwe, Dirk G. “The Christian Spirituality of the Love of God : Conceptual and Experiential Perspectives Emanating from the Gospel of John.” Verbum et Ecclesia 41, no. 1 (January 1, 2020): 1–10.
AbstractChristians will never be able to fully grasp the identity and character of God. The Bible, despite acknowledging its divine inspiration, cannot fully communicate and explain the attributes or qualities of a God nobody has ever seen (Jn 1:18; 1 Jn 4:12, cf. 4:20). Christians do believe in the love, forgiveness and grace/mercy of God, but will never comprehend it completely; although, we still need to continuously investigate it. The objective of this study, from the perspective of the Gospel of John, was to investigate the concept of God's transcendent love and how God can immanently be experienced as a God of love. Firstly, the article constructs a Johannine picture (concept) of love between the Father and the Son. Secondly, it points out how the love of God is foundationally linked to and 'experienced' of the familia Dei. Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article explores one of the qualities (attributes) of God, namely, the love of God as referred to in the Gospel of John. The exploration is carried out from two perspectives: God's love within the divine being and love of creation. It relates to biblical, systematic and practical theology and also has some implications for missiology.
Van der Merwe, Dirk G. “The Exposition of John 17:6-8: An Exegetical Exercise.” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 59, no. 1 (October 27, 2003): 169–90.
AbstractThis essay is an exegesis of Jn 17:6-8 aimed at gaining an understanding of what the Fourth Evangelist tries to emphasize and to communicate concerning the character and success of Jesus This essay is an exegesis of Jn 17:6-8 aimed at gaining an understanding of what the Fourth Evangelist tries to emphasize and to communicate concerning the character and success of Jesus’ earthly ministry. Firstly, a discourse analysis is conducted to point out the linguistic symmetric parallelism through which the Evangelist (1) emphasizes the success of Jesus’ ministry, (2) structures the principal components of Jesus’ ministry and the response of his disciples and (3) tries to explain the meaning of these components. Secondly, a theological exposition of these principal components is conducted, in respect of (1) Revelation: … (2) Obedience /Acceptance: … and (3) Faith: … () earthly ministry. Firstly, a discourse analysis is conducted to point out the linguistic symmetric parallelism through which the Evangelist (1) emphasizes the success of Jesus’ ministry, (2) structures the principal components of Jesus’ ministry and the response of his disciples and (3) tries to explain the meaning of these components. Secondly, a theological exposition of these principal components is conducted, in respect of (1) Revelation: … (2) Obedience / Acceptance: … and (3) Faith: … ()
Van der Merwe, Dirk G. “The Glory-Motif in John 17:1-5: An Exercise in Biblical Semantics.” Verbum et Ecclesia | Skrif En Kerk 23, no. 1 (2002): 226–49.
AbstractThe historical role and theological function of John the Baptist in the first chapter of the Fourth Gospel is analysed. The historical role of the Baptist was to bear witness concerning the identity of Jesus, which culminates in Jesus being joined by two of his disciples. The Baptist's theological function was to influence the reader to also make a decision to follow Jesus. In his testimony about Jesus and his performance as a whole, the Baptist influenced his listeners and the readers of the Fourth Gospel to act in a threefold manner: firstly to start to follow Jesus; secondly to make known the identity of Jesus, and thirdly to lead others to Jesus in order that they may follow Him. In order to achieve these objectives the Fourth Evangelist has chosen, arranged and communicated his material in such a way that the text builds up to a climax in vv 35-37 of chapter 1, where Jesus' identity is grasped and people start to follow Him.
Van der Merwe, Dirk G. “The Interpretation of the Revelatory Events in John 17:24-26: An Exegetical Exercise.” Verbum et Ecclesia | Skrif En Kerk 25, no. 1 (2004): 311–29.
AbstractDiscipleship in the Fourth Gospel indicates a personal relationship between Jesus and his disciples. This relationship is modelled on the Father/Son relationship which is elucidated by the agency model. A descent-ascent schema forms the setting for this concept, with the Johannine dualism as the determining factor for this schema. The 'agency' motif constitutes the conceptual framework from which discipleship flows.
Van der Watt, J. G. “Thou Shalt ... Do the Will of God”: Does the New Testament Have Anything to Say for Today? Nijmegen: Radboud University Nijmegen, 2011.
Abstract"Behold, the Lamb of God... " Substitutionary sacrifice traditions in the Gospel of Joh. The issue of substitutionary sacrifice in John's Gospel is hotly debated. In this article it is argued that there are clear traces of this tradition in the Gospel, although it receives little emphasis. The hypothesis is argued that the author concentrates on the positive aspects of salvation. He does not deal with the question of Jesus' treatment of sin and gUilt as such. However, with the scattered remarks through the Gospel about substitution and sacrifice, a clear indication is given that Jesus also deals with sin (I :29). Due to the positive theological focus in the Gospel this theme is not further developed, but simply stated briefly. When the question about the treatment of sin comes into focus (i e 1 John), no hesitation is displayed in using "typical" sacrificial and substitutionary terminology.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “‘Breek die tempel af’: etiese dimensies in Johannes 2:13-22?” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 71, no. 1 (2015): 1–10.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “‘Is Jesus the King of Israel?’: Reflections on the Jewish Nature of the Gospel of John.” In John and Judaism: A Contested Relationship in Context, edited by R. Alan Culpepper and P. Anderson, 39–56. Resources for Biblical Study 87. Atlanta: SBL Press, 2017.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “As the Father Has Sent Me, I Send You: Towards a Missional-Incarnational Ethos in John 4.” In Moral Language in the New Testament, edited by Jan G. Van der Watt and R. Zimmermann, 168–93. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “Der Meisterschüler Gottes Joh 5,19–23 (vgl. Q10,22; Mat 11,27; Luk 10,27).” In Gleichnis-Kompendium des Neuen Testaments, edited by R. Zimmermann, 745–54. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2007.
AbstractReferences to physical families in John's Gospel are rarely discussed in secondary literature - the emphasis usually falls on the spiritual aspects. In this article the references to physical families are analysed, and it is illustrated that these references, with exception of the references to Maria, are normally used to serve as contrast to the spiritual references. Since one's family and place of origin determine one's status and identity, the author of the Gospel emphasises that what should determine one's identity is not Jesus' earthly origin, but his heavenly origin. The same applies to his disciples.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “Die gebruik van die metafore in Psalm 80 (79 -LXX) in vergelyking met Johannes 15: 1-86.” Verbum et Ecclesia | Skrif en Kerk 20, no. 2 (August 10, 1999): 455–64.
AbstractThe dynamics of metaphor, which are found in John 15:1-8, are compared with the dynamics of metaphor in Psalm 79 (LXX). This is done against the background of the dominance of the ancient Greek philosphical tradition in considering metaphors in ancient texts. It is shown that the dynamics of metaphor in John 15 and Psalm 79 (LXX) are based on the same characteristics. This implies that more care should be taken in identifying the roots of the dynamics of metaphor in ancient literature.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “Die strukturele komposisie van die proloog van die Johannesevangelie heroorweeg.” Verbum et Ecclesia | Skrif en Kerk 8, no. 1 (July 17, 1987): 68–84.
AbstractThe structural composition of the Johannine Prologue reconsidered A brief summary of several efforts to describe the structure of the Prologue Is followed by a suggestion that the Prologue consists of two parts. Each part is individually structured according to its own structuring principle. These two parts are again structurally linked in order to illustrate their interdependence in transmitting the message of the pre-incarnative Logos who became flesh so that we might share in God's grace.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “Die Woord het vlees geword – ’n Strukturele beskrywing van die teologie van Johannes.” In Teologie in kontekst, edited by J. H. Roberts, W. S. Vorster, and J. N. Vorster, 93–130. Pretoria: Orion, 1991.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “Eschatology in the Gospel According to John.” In Eschatology of the New Testament and Some Related Documents, edited by Jan G. Van der Watt, 109–40. WUNT, II. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “Ethics Through the Power of Language: Some Exploration in the Gospel According to John.” In Moral Language in the New Testament, edited by Jan G. Van der Watt and R. Zimmermann, 139–67. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “Interpreting Imagery in John’s Gospel: John 10 and 15 as Case Studies.” In Hupomnema: Feesbundel Opgedra Aan Prof J P Louw, edited by J. H. Barkhuizen, H. F. Stander, and G. J. Swart, 272–82. Pretoria: University of Pretoria, 1992.
AbstractSome of the ways in which John uses the stylistic feature of re- petition in his Gospel are investigated. His repetitive use of the concept “eternal life” is first focused on, pointing out the stylistic changes that occur as the gospel narrative progresses. Then the way in which the word “eternal” is repetitively linked to the word “life” is explored, showing a consistent pattern throughout the Gospel. The selective use and development of the frequent- ly used concept of “love” is then scrutinised in the first twelve chapters of the Gospel, followed by an investigation of the functional use of the concept “to follow” in this Gospel. Reasons for these repetitions are then explored.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “Julle moet mekaar liefhê: Etiek in die Evangelie volgens Johannes.” Scriptura, no. S9a (1993): 74–96.
AbstractJesus' remark in John 3:12 that if Nicodemus does not believe what Jesus has told him about the earthly things, how will he believe if Jesus tells him about the heavenly things, poses the reader with a difficult question: what do "earthly things" refer to, especially since the contents of Jesus' discussion with Nicodemus were the Holy Spirit and his work. What type of knowledge is suggested here? Several possible solutions are discussed followed by a detailed analysis of the context to try to establish the possible referents for ?? ????????. A possible solution suggested is that ?? ???????? refers to the human acceptance of the experience of the birth from above through the Spirit, without being able to understand it properly.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “Laying down Your Life for Your Friends: Some Reflections on the Historicity of John 15:13.” Journal of Early Christian History 4, no. 2 (2014): 167–80.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “Radical Social Redefinition and Radical Love: Ethics and Ethos in the Gospel According to John.” In Identity, Ethics, and Ethos in the New Testament, edited by Jan G. Van der Watt, 107–37. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2006.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “Repetition and Functionality in the Gospel According to John: Some Initial Remaks.” In Repetition and Variation in the Gospel According to John, edited by G. van Belle and P. Maritz, 87–108. Leuven: Peeters, 2009.
AbstractSymbolism in the Gospel according to John The use of terminology like symbol, metaphor and figurative speech is very confusing, since these terms are defined in a variety of ways. A definition of symbol is formulated, and applied to the imagery of shepherding in John 10. A few other symbols are also treated briefly to confirm the results of the symbolic analysis of shepherding in John 10.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “The Angels: Marking the Divine Presence.” In Character Studies in the Fourth Gospel, edited by S. A. Hunt, D. F. Tolmie, and R. Zimmermann, 658–62. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013.
AbstractThe early Christians interpreted the cross/resurrection-events in different theological ways. The author of John argues that Jesus showed his power over life and death by laying down his life and taking it up again. These cross/resurrection-events link Jesus in a unique way to his Father, the living God, who has power over life and death. By illustrating his access to that power over life and death, Jesus convinced his disciples of his divine identity. This conviction is expressed in the climactic confession of Thomas in 20:28: 'My Lord and my God'.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “The Dynamics of Metaphor in ‘John’s Gospel.’” Studien Zum Neuen Testament Und Seiner Umwelt 23 (1998): 29–78.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “The Good and the Truth in John.” In Studien Zu Matthäus Und Johannes/Études Sur Matthieu et Jean, Festschrift Für Jean Zumstein, edited by E. Poplutz, 317–33. Zürich: Theologische Verlag Zürich, 2009.
AbstractJohannine ethics have proven to be a problematic and challenging area of research. In this article the way in which the author of the Gospel of John defines ethical actions are explored. What does he describe as the works of God and what is really good, according to him? The conclusion is that the analytical categories for treating the ethics in the Gospel of John should be broadened.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “The Meaning of Jesus Washing the Feet of His Disciples (John 13).” Neotestamentica 51, no. 1 (2017): 25–39.
AbstractJesus washes the feet of his disciples and consequently explains to them that his action should serve as an example to them. It is common in Johannine studies to interpret the meaning of Jesus’ action as a willingness to humble himself in service of other believers, based on the fact that slaves usually washed the feet of guests, marking it as an action reserved for people of lower status. In this article the question is addressed whether this is indeed the correct interpretation of what Jesus did. The conclusion is that the abovementioned interpretation does not correctly or fully reflect the meaning of Jesus’ action of love, but that the emphasis falls on the nature of intense love.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “The Presence of Jesus Through the Gospel of John.” Neotestamentica 36, no. 1–2 (2002): 89–95.
AbstractIn this article it is argued that the author of the Fourth Gospel aims at guiding his readers through the narrative of the Gospel with the purpose that they will "see" (meet) Jesus, confess Him as Christ, and receive eternal life. Instead of physically hearing the words from the mouth of Jesus himself or seeing Him doing signs (as his first followers could), the present day reader is confronted with these actions of Jesus through the text. The text thus becomes the "presence of Jesus" among the readers and should be read as one intended to challenge the reader to the point where Jesus is accepted as Christ and an existential change takes place in the life of the believer, from death to life (5:25 and 20:31). This indeed implies radical involvement by the reader as well as a radical challenge by the text.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “The Spatial Dynamics of Jesus as King of Israel in the Gospel According to John.” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 72, no. 4 (October 2016): 1–7.
AbstractThe presence of the kingdom of God is usually associated with the theology of the Synoptic Gospels, but this article describes how the concept of kingdom also plays an important role in the Gospel of John, as Busse also argues. It is argued that the Johannine group identify themselves as children of the King and regard themselves as members of the kingdom, of which Jesus, the Messiah, is the major representative on Earth. What is expected of a king in ancient Hellenistic times is true of Jesus. He has power, gives and interprets commandments, judges, saves and protects. Although these events are historically set in a politically tense situation between the Jews and Romans, Jesus’ kingship is from above, revealing God’s narrative of salvation and eternal life in the world below. In this way God’s transcendental narrative of love, life, truth and light serves as a heuristic tool to understand and interpret events in the world below.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “The Spirit Gives Life.” Protokolle zur Bibel 9, no. 1 (2000): 1–22.
Van der Watt, Jan G. “Waar is God regtig? Redding in die Evangelie volgens Johannes.” Dutch Reformed Theological Journal = Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif 44, no. 3–4 (September 1, 2003): 568–77.
AbstractWhere is God really? Salvation in the Gospel according to John In this article it is argued that the soteriology of John does not present a comprehensive, a-historical, all-inclusive soteriology, for the sake of describing a soteriology, but a soteriology modelled on questions at stake in the conflict between the disciples of Moses and those of Jesus, namely, with whom is God and where can he be found?
Van der Watt, Jan G. “Waarheid in die Evangelie van Johannes.” Acta Patristica et Byzantina 20 (2009): 159–78.
AbstractThe reaction of Jesus and his disciples to violence in the Gospel of John
This article is the second of two articles in which violence in the Gospel of John is discussed. It is argued that Jesus' disciples used techniques of vilification in the Gospel, inter alia as way of dealing with the violence they experience at the hands of their opponents. Closer investigation reveals that they use vilification against their opponents as a pragmatic device for missionary purposes.
Van der Watt, Jan G., and L. Vogels. “Metaforiese elemente in die forensiese taal in die Evangelie volgens Johannes.” Verbum et Ecclesia | Skrif en Kerk 21, no. 2 (2000): 387–405.
AbstractMetaphorical elements in the use of forensic language in the Gospel according to JohnThe metaphorical nature of the forensic material in the Gospel of John, leads to the conclusion that more than one courtcase is actually implied. Parallel to the earthly courtcase of Jesus, a spiritual courtcase, where the roles are reversed, is taking place. From these two courtcases, a third one (also spiritual) develops. In this third courtcase, the real reader has to make a decision - for Jesus or against Jesus?
Van der Watt, Jan G., R. Alan Culpepper, and Udo Schnelle. The Prologue of the Gospel of John: Its Literary, Theological, and Philosophical Contexts. Papers Read at the Colloquium Ioanneum 2013. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen Zum Neuen Testament359. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016.
AbstractThe fourteen papers in this volume examine the Prologue of the Gospel of John (1:1-18), addressing questions of its origin and background, structure, use of Greek philosophical terms, and relation to the rest of the Gospel. After the editors' twelve-page foreword, eight articles consider the challenges of the Prologue: Culpepper on the Prologue as theological prolegomenon to the Gospel of John; J. Ashton on whether Jn 1:1-18 is really a prologue; W. R. G. Loader on the significance of the Prologue for understanding John's soteriology; van der Watt on the grammar and syntax of Jn 1:1; C. H. Williams on (not) seeing God in the Prologue and body of John's Gospel; R. Zimmermann on John the Baptist as a character in the Fourth Gospel--the narrative strategy of a witness disappearing; M. Theobald on the genesis of the Corpus Iohanneum on the basis of the Prologue; and C.Karakolis on the Logos-concept and dramatic irony in the Johannine Prologue and narrative. Then six articles discuss the language and concepts of the Prologue in their philosophical context: Schnelle on a philosophical interpretation of the Gospel of John--presuppositions, methods, and perspectives; J. Frey on how readers could have understood the Johannine Logos in view of the multivalence of the term; C. R. Koester on "spirit" (pneuma) in Greco-Roman philosophy and the Gospel of John; G. L. Parsenios on parr?sia in the Fourth Gospel and Greco-Roman philosophy; M. M. Thompson on the philosophical content of the term "light" (ph?s) and the Gospel of John; and J. Zumstein on the philosophical content and use of the term "sign" (s?meion) in the Gospel of John. Abstract Number: NTA60-2016-3
Van Zyl, C., and S. J. Nortje-Meyer. “Footwashing as a Family Event in John 13:1–20.” Ekklesiastikos Pharos 89 (2007): 341–51.
Abstract[This investigation focuses upon the discourse organisation and rhetorical dynamics of Christ's intercessory/inspirational prayer found in John 17. It is based upon the results of three integrated types of discourse analysis: lexical, syntactic-semantic, and architectonic, which pertain to the text's paradigmatic, syntagmatic, and poetic structures respectively. Aspects of 'speech-act theory' are used as a means of further exploring the communicative dimensions of this discourse, namely, its main interactional moves as these relate to points of thematic significance. The elucidation of this structural complex forms the basis for a more tentative description of the past and present persuasive power of Christ's address to his heavenly Father. Of special importance is the operation of a literary technique termed 're-familiarisation' which serves to effect the prayer's principal interpersonal function of physical, psychological, and spiritual reinforcement.]
Wong, C. H. “The Structure of John 17.” Verbum et Ecclesia | Skrif En Kerk 27, no. 1 (2006): 374–92.
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