AbstractIslam in Africa has its roots in the origins of the faith, as Ethiopia was a refuge for Muslims who fled Arabia during the time of Islam’s prophet Muhammad (b. c. 570–d. 632 CE), and then Muslim Arab conquests in the decades after Muhammad’s death brought northern Africa into a Muslim imperial domain that came to encompass southwestern Asia and the Mediterranean world. Smaller states eventually succeeded the empire, and Islam gradually became the dominant faith of northern Africa within several centuries. In sub-Saharan Africa, connections with Muslim-dominated commercial spheres in the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean worlds brought economic and cultural exchanges, and Islam eventually became the dominant religion along the eastern Africa coast and one of several in the pluralist religious context of the bilad al-Sudan (“land of the blacks” in Arabic), the savanna lands below the Sahara from the Atlantic coast in western Africa to the Red Sea in northeast Africa. South of the Sahara, African Muslims forged ties with political elites and in some contexts rulers converted to Islam. Muslim scholarly networks fostered cultural and religious exchanges throughout Africa, and transformations in these networks in the 18th and 19th centuries encouraged the expansion of dynamic Sufi orders; leaders of some of these orders created political movements that challenged established elites. At the same time, growing European economic power influenced commerce, increasing transcontinental slave trading and expanding slavery on the continent, including in Muslim Africa. European imperialism culminated in colonial interventions, and Muslims engaged in diplomacy and armed resistance in response to this expansion. Some Muslims found ways to accommodate colonial administrations, for example by serving as Muslim judges in circumscribed courts, whereas many others focused on spiritual concerns and the expansion of Islam. The colonial era’s abolition of slavery brought some former slaves to the faith, often as disciples in expanding Sufi orders, but other Muslim groups also were active, such as Salafist movements in northern Africa. In the postcolonial era, African Muslim reformers continue to draw on local understandings and engage global Islamic discourses, now unhindered by colonial restrictions. Reformers focus attention on individual self-improvement through education and moral acts; Sufi orders remain important and adopt many of the educational practices and new media used by reformers. In building new nations, African Muslims participate in political processes by voting and organizing advocacy movements; only in selected contexts have radical Muslim groups turned to militancy.
Pouwels, Randall L. “Bibliography of Primary Sources of the Pre-Nineteenth Century East African Coast.” History in Africa 29 (2002): 393–411.
AbstractThe following bibliography is intended to supplement the excellent one (largely) of secondary sources compiled by Thomas Spear and published in History in Africa 27(2000). Research for a forthcoming monograph on the East African coast in the ‘middle’ period has taken me in recent years into a number of libraries and archives in India, East Africa, and Europe. There I have been able to build an extensive listing of source material and oral informants interviewed in East Africa. While this compilation includes many of the titles in Spear's list, study carried out in Goa and Lisbon afforded me the opportunity of viewing primary sources not included in Spear's collection. Despite the fact that this is still a work in progress, I submit this supplementary list hoping it might prove useful to other scholars interested in East Africa and the western Indian in the pre- and early-modern period.
Readers also will note that I have included some secondary listings not included in Spear's bibliography. This is due to the fact that my ideas concerning what is relevant to coastal history appear to be somewhat broader than Spear's. Consequently, this list includes some titles on southern and central Africa, as well as of coastal literature, which I have found to be useful and apposite to coastal studies. Naturally, I have tried not to duplicate titles found in Spear's list.
Schrijver, Paul. Bibliography on Islam in Contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa. Leiden: African Studies Centre, 2006.
AbstractThis book has been nominated for the Conover-Porter Award 2008 - This bibliography on Islam in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa has been prepared as part of the African Studies Centre/Centre d'Étude d'Afrique Noire project entitled "Islam, the Disengagement of the State, and Globalization in Sub-Saharan Africa" that was funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The present bibliography lists over 4,000 references to secondary literature in European languages about Islam in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa. It supplements and updates two existing bibliographies, Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Partially Annotated Guide by Samir Zoghby and Islam in Africa South of the Sahara: A Select Bibliographic Guide by Patrick Ofori, both of which were compiled in the 1970s. Since then, there has been considerable academic interest in Islam in Africa and publications such as the Paris-based journal Islam et Sociétés au Sud du Sahara have regularly informed readers about new publications on Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa. The main objective of the present work is to bring together bibliographical information that has been published in different publications and to provide individuals interested in the topic with a simple and practical research tool.
Tayob, Abdulkader. “Islam in Africa.” Oxford Bibliographies: Islamic Studies. Edited by Natana J. DeLong-Bas, 2019.
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