Akin-Otiko, Akinmayowa, and Aremu R. Abbas. “Return to African Traditional Religion After Conversion to Christianity or Islam: Patronage of Culture or Religious Conversion?” Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies 9, no. 1 (2019): 27–36.
AbstractScholars and individuals have repeatedly affirmed that many Africans frequently return to African Traditional Religion (ATR) after conversion to either Christianity or Islam. This frequent return to ATR has been attributed to different reasons that have not been substantiated with data. This paper examined the nature of interaction that Christians and Muslims have with ATR and cultural practices, and highlighted the reasons for the frequent patronage. The findings confirmed that the patronage of cultural practices does not imply conversion to ATR. Data were collected through randomly distributed questionnaires across four state capitals in the Western part of Nigeria. The state capitals were selected for the possibility of having converts from both Christianity and Islam respond to the questions. Findings were analysed qualitatively. The result showed that there is movement back to ATR and cultural practices for three fundamental reasons; first to seek solutions to physical problems...
Anonymous. “Observations along the Road of Muslim Evangelism.” Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 15, no. 1 (1996): 70–81.
AbstractSeveral religions in Nigeria co-exist, helping to accentuate regional and ethnic distinctions; however, the vast majority of Nigerians are either Christian or Muslim, representing 40% and 50% of the population respectively. This book studies the methods and means of Christian missionaries operating in Sokoto province of Nigeria, including the use of education, healthcare services and charity in winning converts to Christianity. As well as detailing the history of the mission movement, it concludes with suggestions for restoring peaceful inter-religion relations.
Daniels, Gene. “Fruitful Practices in Sub-Saharan Muslim Africa: Some Recent Research Findings.” International Journal of Frontier Missiology 32, no. 1 (May 2015): 37–42.
AbstractGene Daniels is a member of the Fruitful Practice Research team, a collaborative network of missiologists who are studying effective church planters in the Muslim world. He has been involved in ministry to Muslims since 1997, and has a Doctorate in Religious Studies from the University of South Africa. You can contact the Fruitful Practice Research team at firstname.lastname@example.org. Introduction Since 2007, the Fruitful Practices Research team has studied the efforts of church planters1 across the Muslim world. We have used a mixedmethods research approach, surveys complemented by in-depth interviews, to discern the practices of workers which promote the emergence, vitality, and multiplication of fellowships of Jesus followers in a Muslim context. Initially, we focused on understanding this data set as a whole. However, due to the widely recognized regional differences in the Muslim world, we are now doing focused analysis of subgroups of that data. This article will present findings specifically from church planters working in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)
Gaffney, Patrick D. “Africa: Why Christians Are Turning toward Islam.” In Islam: A Challenge for Christianity, edited by Jürgen Moltmann and Hans Küng, 11–17. London: SCM Press, 1994.
AbstractThis book tackles the cutting-edge between Islam and Christianity, in
particular the arguments Muslims employ in discussion or debate with
Christians to establish the pre-eminence of Islam by rigorously refuting the
authenticity of the Christian scriptures and its fundamental doctrines. Any
Christian who engages Muslims in conversation will soon find that they are
equipped with an armoury of objections which they will interject into the
conversation to undermine the Gospel message and distract the Christian by
placing him firmly on the defensive.
Gilchrist, John. Sharing the Gospel with Muslims: A Handbook for Bible-Based Muslim Evangelism. Cape Town: Life Challenge Africa, 2003.
AbstractDiscover the power of God s Word in ministering to Muslims. Gilchrist teaches us to seek common ground as we learn about our Muslim neighbours. This book uses truth from the lives of Adam, Noah, Abraham, David, Jesus, and many others to present the Gospel. Filled with hundreds of passages from the Bible and the Quran that compare and contrast Christian and Muslim beliefs.
Gilliland, Dean S. African Religion Meets Islam: Religious Change in Northern Nigeria. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1986.
AbstractA course for theological programs; with a detailed course outline on three academic levels for theological colleges, with a wealth of suggestions for study assignments and practical assignments.
Hibbert, Richard Y. “Negotiating Identity: Extending and Applying Alan Tippett’s Model of Conversion to Believers from Muslim and Hindu Backgrounds.” Missiology 43, no. 1 (January 2015): 59–72.
AbstractThis article begins by analysing how the model of conversion developed by Alan Tippett corrects some missionary blind spots. It explores the issue of identity negotiation in conversion and proposes an extension of Tippett’s model that addresses this issue. Challenges that Muslims and Hindus coming to faith in Christ face and pathways of response that they take in negotiating their new identity in Christ are then examined. These challenges and responses are illustrated by case studies from the Middle East, West Africa, Bangladesh, and India. Finally, implications of identity negotiation and of an extended version of Tippett’s model for cross-cultural workers serving new believers from Muslim and Hindu backgrounds are outlined.
Hinton, Mark. Ministering among Muslims in Africa: An Annotated List of Practical Materials. Nairobi: ACTEA, 1992.
Howell, Alan B., and Robert A. Montgomery. “God as Patron and Proprietor: God the Father and the Gospel of Matthew in an African Folk Islamic Context.” International Journal of Frontier Missiology 36, no. 3 (July 2019): 129–36.
AbstractMillions of Muslims and Christians are neighbors, and they believe that they worship the one and only God. Yet they seldom witness to each other. In this book, a Muslim (Badru D. Kateregga) and a Christian (David W. Shenk) attempt to witness and listen. The issues they deal with are profound. Kateregga and Shenk open up the basic questions of the human situation and confront similarities and differences in Muslim and Christian responses. In recent years Muslim-Christian interactions have too often been antagonistic. Here the authors pioneer another way: that of authentic dialogue between friends.
Kritzinger, J. N. J. “Islam as Rival of the Gospel in Africa.” Missionalia 8, no. 3 (November 1980): 89–105.
AbstractThe rivalry between Christianity and Islam in Africa consists of 1) competing for converts from the followers of African traditional religions and 2) gaining converts from each other. Since both Christianity and Islam are inherently missionary faiths, these elements will be permanent features of their relationship but not necessarily the only ones: co-operation between them for justice in society is also possible. The factors favouring Islam's growth in Africa include political and ritual issues, polygamy, adaptability and its post-Christian character. Islam challenges the Church in Africa in the areas of ideology, community and theology, and an "Islam in Africa Project" for Southern Africa must be seriously considered.
Mbaya, Henry. “Christianity, Colonialism and Islam: An Anglican Mission on Lake Malawi--Nkhotakota, Malawi: 1894-1906.” Journal of Theology for Southern Africa 148 (March 2014): 99–114.
AbstractThis dissertation analyzes the mission work of five Protestant churches among Muslim pastoral Fulbe (Fulani in English and Peuls in French) in seven Middle Belt states in Northern Nigeria. The study begins with a presentation of the theoretical framework for the research. The principles of effective contextual communication and the concepts of contextual conversions and contextual congregations are outlined. In the analysis of the history and social organization of the pastoral Fulbe society in Northern Nigeria the most important factors that impact the communication of the gospel to Fulbe are identified, such as the central role of cattle and the impact of modernization. In the analysis of the religion and world view of the pastoral Fulbe three religious dimensions or structures are identified: Pulaaku (the traditional pre-Islamic religion of the Fulbe), Islam, and the religious structure of Òspirits and magic.Ó The history of Fulbe mission in Northern Nigeria and of the five mission projects is presented. The mission principles, approaches, and methods of the mission projects together with the spiritual journey of sixty Christian Fulbe from a pastoral background are analyzed on the basis of structured and unstructured interviews. The research shows that the Fulbe mission to a large extent has followed traditional non-contextual mission principles. Significant elements of contextual conversion are identified in the spiritual journey of the converts, but the research concludes that the converts were excluded from their community and culture and not integrated in contextual congregations. Alternative models of contextual local congregations are developed and evaluated, and it is concluded that the Fulbe house fellowship model is the most feasible model in the pastoral Fulbe context in Northern Nigeria today. The final chapter identifies the critical issues for the development of strategies for the contextual communication of the gospel to pastoral Fulbe. The study concludes with nineteen recommendations the most important of which are that all mission initiatives should be directed towards the goal of a contextual conversion, where the converts remain within their Fulbe culture and community and towards the goal of establishing contextual Fulbe congregations.
Naʻīm, ʻAbd A. A., ed. Proselytization and Communal Self-Determination in Africa. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis books, 1999.
AbstractThis probing collection of essays bring together a stellar group of Muslim and Christian, African and Western scholars. Together they explore the question, "Where does one community's right to commend itself to others leave off, and another community's right to be left alone begin?"
Naja, Ben. “A Jesus Movement among Muslims: Research from Eastern Africa.” International Journal of Frontier Missiology 30, no. 1 (January 2013): 27–29.
AbstractEditor's note: In the following short account, the author briefly presents how a Jesus
movement in eastern Africa began and then grew over a thirty-year period. He also shares the preliminary findings of an in-depth study that shows how these Muslim followers of Jesus spread their faith in evangelism, meet for fellowship, and relate to the wider Muslim community
Naja, Ben. “Sixteen Features of Belief and Practice in Two Movements among Muslims in Eastern Africa: What Does the Data Say?” International Journal of Frontier Missiology 30, no. 4 (October 2013): 155–60.
AbstractEditor’s note: In a recent issue of IJFM (30:1, pp. 27-29, “A Jesus Movement among Muslims: Research from Eastern Africa”), we presented the background story to the main movement referred to below as well as some initial findings from the author’s research. Readers are encouraged to familiarize themselves with that account.
Nehls, Gerhard, and Walter Eric. Islam, Basic Aspects: As It Sees Itself, as Others See It, as It Is: A Teachers’ Textbook. Nairobi: Life Challenge Africa, 2005.
AbstractIn the predominantly Muslim context of Zanzibar, Pentecostal Christianity is slowly on the rise as a result of an influx of labor migrants from mainland Tanzania. A paramount feature in these churches is the provision of divine healing and deliverance from spiritual affliction. This article analyses how narratives of healing in one of Zanzibar’s major Pentecostal churches, the City Christian Center, influence how religious belonging is negotiated and manifested. Focusing on Zanzibar-born Pentecostals with Roman Catholic backgrounds, the analysis suggests that healing and practices conducted to deliver individuals from pain and suffering are connected to a wider revaluation of moral and social actions characterizing Zanzibar society. It stresses that Pentecostal belonging builds on Zanzibar-born members’ previous experiences of Zanzibar in a process of both affirmation and rejection, in which adherence to Christianity is intensified by an increased knowledge of God’s power to heal, and opposition to the Muslim majority is strengthened by connecting it to sickness.
Pietzsch, Horst B. Welcome Home: Caring for Converts from Islam. Cape Town: Life Challenge Africa, 2004.
Ravelo-Hoërson, Nicole. “The Persecution by Their Muslim Husbands of Female Converts in Cape Town: A Case for Mission-Shaped Churches and a Missiology of Suffering.” Mission Studies 34, no. 3 (2017): 369–91.
AbstractSignificant changes have occurred in South Africa since the first and free democratic election held on April 27, 1994. Freedom of religion in that country is now thought to be a widely accepted value. However, in that democratic country, female converts have been experiencing persecution at the hands of their Muslim husbands, in contravention of the national laws. This study examines the issue of conversion of Muslim women in Cape Town and its concomitant themes: contextual mission and persecution. It argues that mission-shaped local churches are crucial to express authentic Christocentric witness that speaks to the realities of their religious as well as socio-cultural settings and responds to the needs of their contexts. It also argues that although in popular perception the biblical texts on persecution cannot readily apply to democratic contexts such as South Africa, God's call to Christians to costly discipleship is also a call to a missiology of suffering.
Sanders, Ethan R. “Close Encounters of the Muslim Kind: The CMS and Islam on the East African Coast, 1874-1911.” Transformation 27, no. 4 (October 2010): 248–60.
AbstractWhen the Anglican Church Missionary Society (CMS) started work on the East African coast in 1874 it had no intention of working among Muslims, nor did it mention Islam as a motivation for its desire to work with the people of the interior. This was due largely to the fact that members of the mission thought Islam in the region was stagnant and posed no threat to their work. As the organisation expanded inland, and as missionaries observed the Muslims of the region, its attitudes and strategies towards Islam started to change. This article explores the reasons for these changes and discusses the early relations between missionaries and Muslims.
Sharkey, Heather J. American Evangelicals in Egypt: Missionary Encounters in an Age of Empire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.
AbstractIn 1854, American Presbyterian missionaries arrived in Egypt as part of a larger Anglo-American Protestant movement aiming for worldwide evangelization. Protected by British imperial power, and later by mounting American global influence, their enterprise flourished during the next century. American Evangelicals in Egypt follows the ongoing and often unexpected transformations initiated by missionary activities between the mid-nineteenth century and 1967--when the Six-Day Arab-Israeli War uprooted the Americans in Egypt.
Thomson, Steven K. “Christianity, Islam, and ‘the Religion of Pouring’: Non-Linear Conversion in a Gambia/Casamance Borderland.” Journal of Religion in Africa 42, no. 3 (2012): 240–76.
AbstractThe twentieth-century religious history of the Kalorn (Karon Jolas) in the Alahein River Valley of the Gambia/Casamance border cannot be reduced to a single narrative. Today extended families include Muslims, Christians, and practitioners of the traditional Awasena 'religion of pouring'. A body of funeral songs highlights the views of those who resisted pressure toward conversion to Islam through the 1930s, '40s and '50s. The introduction of a Roman Catholic mission in the early 1960s created new social and economic possibilities that consolidated an identity that stood as an alternative to the Muslim-Mandinka model. This analysis emphasizes the equal importance of both macropolitical and economic factors and the more proximal effects of reference groups in understanding religious conversion. Finally, this discussion of the origins of religious pluralism within a community grants insight into how conflicts along religious lines have been defused.
White, Charles E. “Teaching Mark’s Gospel to Muslims: Lessons from an African University.” Christianity Today, 1993.
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